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Dr hab. Tomasz Grzyb
ORCID: 0000-0002-1080-5000

Dr hab. Tomasz Grzyb, prof. USWPS

Professor at SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, in Wroclaw, Poland and visiting lecturer at the NATO School in Germany. His main area of interest is social influence and manipulation techniques. He is also a supporter of courses concerning the basics of social influence studies organized for military officers engaged in PSYOPS. He has published a number of articles about marketing, social psychology, advertising and education.

DOI: 10.33226/0032-6186.2022.2.2
JEL: K31

By granting the employer's consent in situations specified in the law, the employee authorizes him to take specific action, e.g. a pregnant employee authorizes the employer to delegate her outside her permanent place of work (Article 178 of the Labour Code). Although a number of provisions in the Labour Code and in other acts use this term, the concept of consent has not been defined by the Polish legislator. The provisions of EU law regulating the granting of consent indicate the necessary features of this activity (behavior). They are: voluntary, specific, conscious and unambiguous demonstration of will, which the person confirms in the form of a declaration or a clear action. Thus, only the consent given by the employee under the above conditions can be considered as an expression of his will. The empirical research described in the paper shows that employees, contrary to their belief, do not have knowledge about labour law, in particular as to the legal circumstances related to granting consent to specific actions of the employer. In our opinion, knowledge on this subject is necessary for the informed consent of the employee. Necessary information should therefore be provided to the employee by the employer. In most cases, the law does not directly require the employer to inform the employee about the circumstances related to granting consent, but such an obligation should be derived from the obligation to cooperate in the performance of the commitment. Taking into account the fact that employees do not have a decidedly negative opinion about the observance of labour law by employers, there is a chance that the performance of such duties by employers will positively affect building relationships based on trust between the parties to the employment relationship, which brings significant benefits to both sides.

Keywords: consent; will to awareness; obligation to inform; knowledge of labour law; decision
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2022.3.2
JEL: M31

Textual Paralanguage (TPL) is widely used in marketing practice. However, there is no consensus on its effectiveness. Since mimicry is a good proxy for communication effectiveness, we set out to determine if TPL is in fact being mimicked (in spoken or written form: "hm," "aaaa," "lol" which are exemplars of the TPL), and consequently, whether TPL is an effective tool in marketing communication. In three studies, participants took part in interviews and were randomly assigned to two condition groups. In the experimental group, the experimenter incorporated elements of TPL in the conversation. The control group had no exposure to TPL. We used several measures of the tendency to mimic TPL. The experiments were run at a university in Poznań (Poland), at the turn of 2017 and 2018. We found that TPL, often used in marketing communication, was not mimicked at all, and thus may not be beneficial to the agent using it. The findings of this paper contradict the everyday practice of marketing communication. The results are consistent across all three experiments. In light of the reported experiments, people do not imitate TPL in communication, which may signify that the expected benefits are lacking.

Keywords: mimicry; imitation; written communication; textual paralanguage; emoji in marketing