Best prices Special offers for members of the PWE book club The cheapest delivery
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2020.2.2
JEL: M31, M37

The marketing effectiveness of the agentic and communal advertisements: congruity effect with a pursuing and communal-slef

The article shows three pilot studies and the exeperiment about marketing effectiveness adverisments ibued with agentic or communal content. Based on the dual perspective model of agency and communion and the self-congruity effect it was expected that the agentic advertisement will be valuated by recipient's pursuing-self (in accordance with actor perspective who is pursing to personal goal acheivement) and communal advertisement by communionself (in accordance with observer perspective who is assessing good intentions of the other people). The pilot studies showed that the prepeared animated advertisements of carrot characterised by high agency or communal content. The experiment showed that the agentic advertisement influence on more strong relations between recipient's intention to carrot eating and positive attitude toward product and advertisement. Wheres the communal advertisement influence on more strong relations between recipient's communion and positive attitude toward product and advertisement. Study shows that the valuation of an advertised products is consistent with fundamental dimensions of human living, that is pursiung to and initiating and maintaning social relationships.

Download article
Keywords: communion; agency; advertising effectiveness; self-congruity; SEM-PLS



Abele, A. E. i Bruckmüller, S. (2011). The bigger one of the „Big Two”? Preferential processing of communal information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(5), 935–948. 2011.03.028

Abele, A. E., Hauke, N., Peters, K., Louvet, E., Szymkow, A. i Duan, Y. (2016). Facets of the fundamental content dimensions: Agency with competence and assertiveness-communion with warmth and morality. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(November), 1–17. 2016.01810

Abele, A. E. i Wojciszke, B. (2007). Agency and Communion From the Perspective of Self Versus Others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(5), 751–763.

Abele, A. E. i Wojciszke, B. (2014). Communal and agentic content in social cognition: A dual perspective model. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 195–255.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior. In: J. Kuhl i J. Beckmann (red.), Action control: From cognition to behavior, 11–39.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Orgnizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211. 90020-T

Ajzen, I. i Kruglanski, A. W. (2019). Reasoned action in the service of goal pursuit. Psychological Review, (July).

Allport, G. W. (1935). Attitudes. A Handbook of Social Psychology, 1, 798–844.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th.

Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence: An essay on psychology and religion. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company.

Baumann, N., Kuhl, J. i Kazén, M. (2005). Left-hemispheric activation and self-infiltration: Testing a neuropsychological model of internalization. Motivation and Emotion, 29(3), 135–163.

Bocian, K., Baryla, W., Kulesza, W. M., Schnall, S. i Wojciszke, B. (2018). The mere liking effect: Attitudinal influences on attributions of moral character. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 79, 9–20. 2018.06.007

Brambilla, M., Rusconi, P., Sacchi, S. i Cherubini, P. (2011). Looking for honesty: The primary role of morality (vs. sociability and competence) in information gathering. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(2), 135–143.

Breckler, S. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(6), 1191–1205.

Carrim, J. N. (2018). The Mediating Role of Actual Self-Congruity on the Relationship between Religion and Store Loyalty: A Case of Mauritius. Journal of Management and Marketing Review, 3(4), 179–184.

Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T. i Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS Map: Behaviors From Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(4), 631–648.

Do, H., Ko, E. i Woodside, A. G. (2015). Tiger Woods, Nike, and I are (not) best friends: how brand's sports sponsorship in social-media impacts brand consumer's congruity and relationship quality. International Journal of Advertising, 34(4).

Epstein, S. (1973). The Self-Concept Revisited: Or a Theory of a Theory. American Psychologist, 28(5), 404–416.

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C. i Glick, P. (2002). Emotions up and down: Intergroup emotions result from status and competition. From Prejudice to Intergroup Emotions: Differentiated Reactions to Social Groups, (January), 247–264.

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C. i Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 77–83. 2006.11.005

Grzeskowiak, S. i Sirgy, J. M. (2007). Consumer Well-Being (CWB): The Effects of Self-Image Congruence, Brand-Community Belongingness, Brand Loyalty, and Consumption Recency. Applied Research Quality Life, 2, 289–304.

Harmon-Jones, C., Bastian, B. i Harmon-Jones, E. (2016). The discrete emotions questionnaire: A new tool for measuring state self-reported emotions. PLoS ONE, 11(8), 1–25. 0159915

Helgeson, V. S. (1994). Relation of Agency and Communion to Weil-Being: Evidence and Potential Explanations. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 412–428.

Hirsh, J. B., Kang, S. K. i Bodenhausen, G. V. (2012). Personalized Persuasion: Tailoring Persuasive Appeals to Recipients' Personality Traits. Psychological Science, 23(6), 578–581.

Howle, T. C., Dimmock, J. A., Ntoumanis, N., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Sparks, C. i Jackson, B. (2017). The Impact of Agentic and Communal Exercise Messages on Individuals' Exercise Class Attitudes, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Intention to Attend. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19, 1–15. 2017-0084

Hryniewicz, K. (2018). Efekt zbieżności obrazu produktu z charakterystyką konsumenta a intencją zakupu i chęcią zapłaty. Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(1), 223–234.

Hryniewicz, K. (2019). Efektywność marketingowa reklam sprawczych i wspólnotowych. https://doi. org/10.17605/OSF.IO/QEZXR

Hryniewicz, K., Badzmirowski, D. i Borchet, J. (2019). The Role of Self-convergence Effect in Purchasing Process vs Brand Familiarity on Example of Energy Drink Category in Polish Consumers Conditions. Marketing i Rynek, (6), 15–23.

Hughes, E. R. (1976). Self-Concept and Brand Preference: A Partial Replication. The Journal of Business, 49(4), 530–540. Retrieved from

Infanger, M. i Sczesny, S. (2015). Communion-over-agency effects on advertising effectiveness. International Journal of Advertising, 34(2), 285–306.

Jeong, E. i Jang, S. (2016). Moderating effects of self-image congruity on the relationship between advertisement message strength and revisiting intention. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 1–11.

Kazén, M., Baumann, N. i Kuhl, J. (2003). Self-Infiltration vs. Self-Compatibility Checking in Dealing with Unattractive Tasks: The Moderating Influence of State vs. Action Orientation. Motivation and Emotion, 27(3), 157–197.

Kazén, M. i Kuhl, J. (2011). Directional discrepancy between implicit and explicit power motives is related to well-being among managers. Motivation and Emotion, 35(3), 317–327.

Kock, N. (2010). Using WarpPLS in E-collaboration Studies: An Overview of Five Main Analysis Steps. International Journal of E-Collaboration, 6(4), 1–12.

Kock, N. (2014). Advanced mediating effects tests, multi-group analyses, and measurement model assessments in PLS-based SEM. International Journal of E-Collaboration, 10(1), 1–13.

Kock, N. (2017a). Structural equation modeling with factors and composites: A comparison of four methods. 1–9.

Kock, N. (2017b). WarpPLS User Manual: Version 6.0. Retrieved from pdf#page=77

Kock, N. i Gaskins, L. (2016). Simpson's paradox, moderation, and the emergence of quadratic relationships in path models: An information systems illustration. International Journal of Applied Nonlinear Science, 2(3), 200–234.

Kock, N. i Lynn, G. S. (2012). Lateral Collinearity and Misleading Results in Variance-Based SEM: An Illustration and Recommendations. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(7), 546–580. Retrieved from

Kock, N. i Mayfield, M. (2015). PLS-based SEM Algorithms: The Good Neighbor Assumption, Collinearity, and Nonlinearity. Information Management & Business Review, 7(2), 113–130.

Kressmann, F., Sirgy, J. M., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S. i Lee, D. (2006). Direct and indirect effects of self-image congruence on brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 59, 955–964. jbusres. 2006.06.001

Kuhl, J. (2000). A Functional-Design Approach to Motivation and Self-Regulation: The Dynamics of Personality Systems Interactions. In: M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich i M. Zeidner (red.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (111–169). X5027-6

Kuhl, J. (2001). A Functional Approach to Motivation. In: A. Efklides, J. Kuhl i R. M. Sorrentino (red.), Trends and Prospects in Motivation Research (239–268).

Kuhl, J. i Kazén, M. (2008). Motivation, Affect, and Hemispheric Asymmetry: Power Versus Affiliation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(2), 456–469.

Laksmidewi, D., Susianto, H. i Afiff, A. Z. (2017). Anthropomorphism in Advertising: The Effect of Anthropomorphic Product Demonstration on Consumer Purchase Intention. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 22(1), 1–25.

Liu, F., Li, J., Mizerski, D. i Soh, H. (2012). Self-congruity, brand attitude, and brand loyalty: a study on luxury brands. European Journal of Marketing, 46(7/8), 922–937.

Lorenz, K. (1966). On Aggression. London and New York: Doutledge Classics.

Luna-corte, G. (2018). The Influence of Materialism and Self-Congruity on the Relationship of Human With Their Companion Dogs. Social Marketing Quarterly, (62), 1–15.

Pearl, J. (2009). Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference (2nd ed.).

Peeters, G. (2008). The evaluative face of a descriptive model: Communion and agency in Peabody' s tetradic model of trait organization. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 1066–1072.

Quester, P. G., Karunaratna, A. i Goh, L. K. (2000). Self-congruity and product evaluation: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(6), 525–535. https: //doi. org/10.1108/07363760010349939

Quirin, M., Bode, R. C., i Kuhl, J. (2011). Recovering from negative events by boosting implicit positive affect. Cognition and Emotion, 25(3), 559–570.

Quirin, M., Kaze, M. i Kuhl, J. (2009). When Nonsense Sounds Happy or Helpless? The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (PANAT). 97(3), 500–516.

Rodríguez-Entrena, M., Schuberth, F. i Gelhard, C. (2016). Assessing statistical differences between parameters estimates in Partial Least Squares path modeling. Quality and Quantity, (August), 1–13.

Rosenberg, S., Nelson, C. i Vivekananthan, P. S. (1968). A Multidimensional Approach to the Structure of Personality Impressions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(4), 283–294.

Sirgy, J. M. (1982). Self-Concept in Consumer Behavior: A critical Reviev. Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 287–300.

Sirgy, J. M. (1985). Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase motivation. Journal of Business Research, 13(3), 195–206.

Sirgy, J. M., Johar, J. S., Samli, A. C. i Claiborne, C. B. (1991). Self-Congruity Versus Functional Congruity: Predictors of Consumer Behavior. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(4), 363–375.

Sirgy, M. J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T. F., Park, J., Chon, K., Claiborne, C. B. i Berkman, H. (1997). Assessing the Predictive Validity of Two Methods of Measuring Self-Image Congruence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(3), 229–241.

Tenenhaus, M., Esposito, V. V., Chatelin, Y. -M. i Lauro, C. (2005). PLS path modeling. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, 48(1), 159–205.

Wijaya, A. P. (2017). Role of Experience in Customer Self-Congruity to Maintaining Loyalty: A Study on Fashion Store. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), 189–198.

Wojciszke, B. (2005). Morality and competence in person- and self-perception. European Review of Social Psychology, 16, 155–188.

Wojciszke, B. i Abele, A. E. (2008). The primacy of communion over agency and its reversals in evaluations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 1139–1147.

Wojciszke, B., Bazinska, R. i Jaworski, M. (1998). On the dominance of moral categories in impression formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(12), 1251–1263.

Wojciszke, B. i Szlendak, M. A. (2010). Skale do pomiaru orientacji sprawczej i wspólnotowej. Psychologia Społeczna, 5(13), 57–70. Retrieved from http: // pdf

Yu, C. -C., Lin, P. -J. i Chen, C. -S. (2013). How Brand Image, Country of Origin, and Self-Congruity Influence Internet Users' Purchase Intention. Social Behavior & Personality, 41(4), 599–611.

Article price
Journal of Marketing and Market Studies 2/2020
As file to download
161.00 €
get subscription