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Journal of Marketing and Market Studies 10/2019

ISSN: 1231-7853
Pages: 36
Publication date: 2019
Place publication: Warszawa
Binding: paperback
Format: A4
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2019.10.1
JEL: D870, Z110 (artykuł w języku angielskim)

​This paper aims to present a case study on the application of Emotional Analytics to measure audience experience in the culture sector. The adopted technology enables audience measurement by detecting persons’ face and recognizing the emotions they feel in real time, while watching a show or attending a cultural event. It is the result of a long-term research and development project, whose goal is to advance neuro-marketing by proving a non-invasive ad wearable technology to investigate individual affective and emotional response in public spaces. The developed Emotional Analytics platform is called EMOJ and in summer 2019 has been used to analyse the experience lived by the audience of the Macerata Opera Festival, a series of opera representations that take place in the Sferisterio Arena, in Macerata. The goal of this project is to provide useful information on the quality of each performance and of the entire festival perceived by the audience, in order to make the right choices to improve the performances and to have a return on ticket sales for the coming years.

Keywords: customer experience; artificial intelligence; emotions detection; marketing for cultural organizations; experiential marketing
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2019.10.2
JEL: M300 (artykuł w języku angielskim)

Customer experience studies are an important component of research portfolio of every significant research agency. The main goal of this article is to show the key areas for CX and types of research which conducted in the field. The article also features two latest tools examining customer experience developed by Kantar research agency: the qualitative tool based on gamification – „Our City” and the quantitative one called CX+. The underlying premises of both tools and the areas of applications with their unique contribution in the CX research process have been described as well.

Keywords: customer experience; market research; methodology; gamification
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DOI: DOI 10.33226/1231-7853.2019.10.3
JEL: M300 (artykuł w języku angielskim)

The aim of the paper is to characterise the concept of experiential marketing as an idea constituting the basis for building the strategy of brand communication in social media. The paper presents “genetic code” for building such strategy that was “encrypted” in SMART acronym. The deliberations presented in the paper can contribute to building the model in which it is vital to include social media in the process of creation of experiences and desirable emotions associated with them. The paper is prepared on the basis of review of Polish and foreign literature on the subject, observations of economic practice and selected results of authors own research.

Keywords: experiential marketing; social media; marketing communication; brand
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The topic of this special issue of „Journal of Marketing and Market Studies” is experiential marketing, a concept that has emerged in the marketing science in the late 90-ties. Its main assumption lies in the claim that contemporary customers are bored with traditional marketing tools and techniques and seek memorable experiences that would stimulate them in a sensory way, evoke real emotions, provoke them intellectually and allow to become members of a certain community. The experiential marketing originally focused on ‘creative’ industries, i.e. entertainment and tourism, but nowadays this concept spreads to more mundane industries, such as retailing and banking. It is believed that memorable customer experiences bond the customer with the brand via increased satisfaction, engagement and loyalty. In turn, companies increase their profitability, market share, as well as brand reputation and recognition. The concept of experiential marketing has been increasingly studied by Polish authors, to whom we dedicate this special issue.
This two-part special issue includes seven papers, among which there is one literature review, two methodological papers devoted to the development and validation of new techniques of measuring customer experiences, three empirical studies and a bibliometric analysis. 
The first paper describes the state of research on experiential marketing in Poland (Dziewanowska & Kacprzak). The systematic literature review method was employed to collect relevant empirical studies on the topic and analyze the main research directions. It appears that customer experience is still a novelty in Polish marketing science, with most of the papers in this field being published after 2016. The majority of articles present case studies focused on the use of experiential marketing in a certain organization or industry. The need for quantitative and qualitative studies, which would not only replicate western concepts but also test new and original ones and develop methods of measuring customer experience, is clearly visible.
The second paper – by A. Dąbrowska & M. Janoś-Kresło – focuses on the importance of the customer experience in service marketing and presents the results of two quantitative studies conducted among two interesting market segments: single individuals and customers aged 60+. The article is also supplemented with a qualitative study – 18 individual interviews with service companies’ employees. The Authors point to the disturbingly high number of customers with ambivalent attitude to service providers which contradicts the experiential marketing rule of delivering exceptional and unforgettable experiences. 
In the following paper M. Gębarowski presents a bibliometric analysis of the papers on extreme forms of tourism such as war-zone tourism or tombstone tourism, which according to the Author represent new fields of the experience economy. As a result, the Author points to gaps in the existing body of literature that can be filled by future studies in extreme tourism.
M. Spychalska-Wojtkiewicz & M. Tomczyk in their paper merge the design thinking concept with experiential marketing. Design thinking is a new approach to innovation that puts human needs in the center of the innovation process. The results of qualitative studies on an international sample of managers prove that design thinking is a useful method of designing innovative customer experiences. 
Next papers of this special issue partially fill the gap mentioned above by providing two new methods of measuring customer experience. The paper by M. Mengoni et al. presents a tool developed to measure customer emotions by analyzing their facial expressions. Prof. Mengoni with her team from EMOJ (a spin-off company of Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy) has developed the tool and tested its possibilities during an opera festival in Macerata. It opens new possibilities to improve the quality of cultural events as the customer emotions can be matched with the exact point in time during the show. 
The subsequent paper by M. Ścibor-Rylski and his team from Kantar Polska research agency describes the use of two new tools that measure the customer experience – a qualitative, employing gamification (“Our city” game), and a quantitative one (CX+). The use of a board game developed online allows to reconstruct a customer journey map as well as category entry points and all circumstances that may influence the final customer experience. In turn, the CX+ instrument measures the consistency of a brand promise and delivered customer experience. The paper also provides results of validation studies for both tools.
The last paper – by Z. Spyra – is devoted to the topic of building a brand communication strategy in social media. The proposed model is called SMART and its key elements of communications comprise: synergy, methodicalness, attractiveness of the content, reactivity and transposition. The proposed model was tested in a quantitative study on a sample of 709 young consumers, which allows to rank the elements of the model from most to least important. 
We hope you will find these papers interesting and inspiring!

Guest Editors
dr hab. Agnieszka Kacprzak & dr hab. Katarzyna Dziewanowska

 

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Szanowni Państwo, Czytelnicy i Autorzy!

 

Editorial

The topic of this special issue of „Journal of Marketing and Market Studies” is experiential marketing, a concept that has emerged in the marketing science in the late 90-ties. Its main assumption lies in the claim that contemporary customers are bored with traditional marketing tools and techniques and seek memorable experiences that would stimulate them in a sensory way, evoke real emotions, provoke them intellectually and allow to become members of a certain community. The experiential marketing originally focused on ‘creative’ industries, i.e. entertainment and tourism, but nowadays this concept spreads to more mundane industries, such as retailing and banking. It is believed that memorable customer experiences bond the customer with the brand via increased satisfaction, engagement and loyalty. In turn, companies increase their profitability, market share, as well as brand reputation and recognition. The concept of experiential marketing has been increasingly studied by Polish authors, to whom we dedicate this special issue.

This two-part special issue includes seven papers, among which there is one literature review, two methodological papers devoted to the development and validation of new techniques of measuring customer experiences, three empirical studies and a bibliometric analysis.

The first paper describes the state of research on experiential marketing in Poland (Dziewanowska & Kacprzak). The systematic literature review method was employed to collect relevant empirical studies on the topic and analyze the main research directions. It appears that customer experience is still a novelty in Polish marketing science, with most of the papers in this field being published after 2016. The majority of articles present case studies focused on the use of experiential marketing in a certain organization or industry. The need for quantitative and qualitative studies, which would not only replicate western concepts but also test new and original ones and develop methods of measuring customer experience, is clearly visible.

The second paper – by A. Dąbrowska & M. Janoś-Kresło – focuses on the importance of the customer experience in service marketing and presents the results of two quantitative studies conducted among two interesting market segments: single individuals and customers aged 60+. The article is also supplemented with a qualitative study – 18 individual interviews with service companies’ employees. The Authors point to the disturbingly high number of customers with ambivalent attitude to service providers which contradicts the experiential marketing rule of delivering exceptional and unforgettable experiences.

In the following paper M. Gębarowski presents a bibliometric analysis of the papers on extreme forms of tourism such as war-zone tourism or tombstone tourism, which according to the Author represent new fields of the experience economy. As a result, the Author points to gaps in the existing body of literature that can be filled by future studies in extreme tourism.

M. Spychalska-Wojtkiewicz & M. Tomczyk in their paper merge the design thinking concept with experiential marketing. Design thinking is a new approach to innovation that puts human needs in the center of the innovation process. The results of qualitative studies on an international sample of managers prove that design thinking is a useful method of designing innovative customer experiences.

Next papers of this special issue partially fill the gap mentioned above by providing two new methods of measuring customer experience. The paper by M. Mengoni et al. presents a tool developed to measure customer emotions by analyzing their facial expressions. Prof. Mengoni with her team from EMOJ (a spin-off company of Polytechnic University of Marche, Italy) has developed the tool and tested its possibilities during an opera festival in Macerata. It opens new possibilities to improve the quality of cultural events as the customer emotions can be matched with the exact point in time during the show.

The subsequent paper by M. Ścibor-Rylski and his team from Kantar Polska research agency describes the use of two new tools that measure the customer experience – a qualitative, employing gamification (“Our city” game), and a quantitative one (CX+). The use of a board game developed online allows to reconstruct a customer journey map as well as category entry points and all circumstances that may influence the final customer experience. In turn, the CX+ instrument measures the consistency of a brand promise and delivered customer experience. The paper also provides results of validation studies for both tools.

The last paper – by Z. Spyra – is devoted to the topic of building a brand communication strategy in social media. The proposed model is called SMART and its key elements of communications comprise: synergy, methodicalness, attractiveness of the content, reactivity and transposition. The proposed model was tested in a quantitative study on a sample of 709 young consumers, which allows to rank the elements of the model from most to least important.

We hope you will find these papers interesting and inspiring

Guest Editors

dr hab. Agnieszka Kacprzak & dr hab. Katarzyna Dziewanowska

 

Od redakcji

Tematem specjalnego wydania „Marketingu i Rynku”, który oddajemy do rąk Czytelników, jest marketing doświadczeń, koncepcja, która pojawiła się w naukach marketingowych pod koniec lat 90. Jego główne założenie polega na stwierdzeniu, że współcześni klienci są znudzeni tradycyjnymi narzędziami i technikami marketingowymi i szukają niezapomnianych wrażeń, które pobudzą ich zmysły, wzbudzą prawdziwe emocje, sprowokują intelektualnie i pozwolą poczuć się członkami określonej społeczności. Marketing doświadczeń początkowo koncentrował się na branżach „kreatywnych”, tj. rozrywkowych i turystycznych, ale obecnie ta koncepcja rozprzestrzenia się również w bardziej prozaicznych sektorach gospodarki , takich jak handel detaliczny i bankowość. Uważa się, że niezapomniane wrażenia klientów łączą klienta z marką poprzez zwiększoną satysfakcję, zaangażowanie i lojalność. Z kolei firmy zwiększają swoją rentowność, udział w rynku, a także poprawiają reputację i rozpoznawalność marki. Koncepcja marketingu doświadczeń jest coraz częściej badana także przez polskich autorów.

Niniejsze wydanie specjalne na temat marketingu doświadczeń obejmuje siedem artykułów, w tym jeden przegląd literatury, dwa artykuły metodologiczne poświęcone opracowaniu i walidacji nowych technik pomiaru doświadczeń klientów, trzy badania empiryczne i analizę bibliometryczną. Artykuły będą prezentowane w dwóch kolejnych numerach „Marketingu i Rynku”.

Pierwszy artykuł opisuje stan badań nad marketingiem doświadczeń w Polsce (K. Dziewanowska i A. Kacprzak). Zastosowano w nim metodę systematycznego przeglądu literatury, aby zebrać odpowiednie badania empiryczne na ten temat i przeanalizować główne kierunki badań. W wyniku przeprowadzonej analizy, można stwierdzić, że koncepcja doświadczenia klienta jest wciąż nowością w polskich badaniach nad marketingiem, a większość artykułów z tej dziedziny została opublikowana po 2016 r. Duża część z nich zawiera studia przypadków dotyczące wykorzystania marketingu doświadczeń w określonej organizacji lub branży. Widoczna jest potrzeba badań ilościowych i jakościowych, które nie tylko odtwarzałyby zachodnie koncepcje, ale także testowały oryginalne teorie oraz opracowały nowe metody pomiaru doświadczeń klientów.

Drugi tekst - autorstwa A. Dąbrowskiej i M. Janoś-Kresło - koncentruje się na znaczeniu doświadczenia klienta w marketingu usług i przedstawia wyniki badań ilościowych przeprowadzonych wśród dwóch interesujących segmentów rynku: singli i klientów w wieku 60+. Artykuł uzupełniono także badaniem jakościowym – 18 wywiadami indywidualnymi z pracownikami firm usługowych. Autorki wskazują na niepokojąco dużą liczbę klientów o obojętnym stosunku do usługodawców, co jest sprzeczne z podstawowym założeniem marketingu doświadczeń, jakim jest dostarczanie wyjątkowych i niezapomnianych wrażeń.

W kolejnym artykule M. Gębarowski przedstawia analizę bibliometryczną artykułów na temat ekstremalnych form turystyki, takich jak turystyka w strefach wojennych lub turystyka nagrobna, które według autora reprezentują nowe dziedziny ekonomii doświadczeń. W rezultacie autor wskazuje na luki w istniejącej literaturze, które można uzupełnić przyszłymi badaniami w dziedzinie turystyki ekstremalnej.

M. Spychalska-Wojtkiewicz i M. Tomczyk w swoim artykule łączą koncepcję design thinking (myślenia projektowego) z marketingiem doświadczeń. Design thinking to nowe podejście do innowacji, które stawia ludzkie potrzeby w centrum procesu innowacji. Wyniki badań jakościowych na międzynarodowej próbie menedżerów dowodzą, że design thinking jest przydatną metodą projektowania innowacyjnych doświadczeń klientów.

Kolejne artykuły tego specjalnego wydania częściowo wypełniają wspomnianą wyżej lukę metodyczną, zapewniając dwie nowe metody pomiaru doświadczeń klienta. Artykuł M. Mengoni i in. przedstawia narzędzie opracowane do pomiaru emocji klientów poprzez analizę ich wyrazu twarzy. Prof. Mengoni ze swoim zespołem z EMOJ (spółka wydzielona z Politechniki Uniwersytetu w Marche, Włochy) opracowała to narzędzie i przetestowała jego możliwości podczas festiwalu operowego w miejscowości Macerata. Narzędzie to umożliwia poprawę jakości wydarzeń kulturalnych, ponieważ pozwala dopasować emocje klientów do konkretnego momentu w czasie pokazu.

W kolejnym artykule M. Ścibor-Rylski i jego zespół z agencji badawczej Kantar Polska opisują wykorzystanie dwóch nowych narzędzi mierzących doświadczenie klienta – jakościowego, wykorzystującego gamifikację (gra „Nasze miasto”), i ilościowego (CX+). Zastosowanie internetowej gry planszowej pozwala zrekonstruować mapę podróży klienta, punkty wejścia do kategorii oraz wszystkie okoliczności, które mogą mieć wpływ na ostateczne doświadczenie klienta. Z kolei CX+ mierzy spójność obietnicy marki i satysfakcji klienta. Artykuł zawiera również wyniki badań walidacyjnych dla obu narzędzi.

Ostatni artykuł numeru specjalnego (Z. Spyra) jest poświęcony budowaniu strategii komunikacji marki w mediach społecznościowych. Proponowany model nosi nazwę SMART, a jego kluczowe elementy komunikacji obejmują: synergię, metodyczność, atrakcyjność treści, reaktywność i transpozycję. Proponowany model został przetestowany w badaniu ilościowym na próbie 709 młodych konsumentów, co pozwoliło uszeregować elementy modelu od najbardziej do najmniej ważnych.

Życzymy ciekawej, inspirującej i miłej lektury!

 

Redaktorzy numeru specjalnego

dr hab. Agnieszka Kacprzak i dr hab. Katarzyna Dziewanowska

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