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Dr hab. inż. Agnieszka Dąbska
ORCID: 0000-0002-1185-3872

Engineer of water, environmental and civil engineering and a specialist in geotechnics. Her scientific activity focuses on the physical and mechanical properties of natural and manmade soils, mainly on the compactibility and permeability, their correlations and practical application in structures. Her main scientific-research area covers the issues of sand deformations due to seepage and soil resistance to failure due to seepage. As a part of cooperation with the economic environment, she deals with laboratory and field tests of natural and man-made soils, assessment and expertise of the technical state of building structures and works related to soil-structure interaction. Her scientific activity is also closely related to implementing the PN-EN 1997 Eurocode 7 standard in Poland.

DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2023.3.3
JEL: L74, Q01, Q34, Q53

Sand is a globally mined natural resource. It is applied, among others, in construction, because sand is one of the main components of concrete mixtures and a material used in earthworks. The aim of the manuscript is to organize the state of knowledge regarding the management of sandy waste generated in wastewater treatment plants and to indicate the possibilities of using this waste as an alternative raw material in construction applications. The main thesis is the claim that sand recovered in wastewater treatment plants, perceived as waste, can be an alternative for the global economy to obtain a significant amount of raw material for various uses in construction and to replace natural raw materials extracted for industry. The paper presents data on natural sand resources and its use, the effects of uncontrolled exploitation of the worlds sand resources and the potential of the Polish sand resource base. Particular attention was paid to the review of the possibilities of using sandy waste generated in wastewater treatment plants as an alternative raw material for natural sand resources. The practical applications of sand obtained in the processes used in wastewater treatment plants were also presented.

Keywords: sand; mineral waste; sandy waste generated in wastewater treatment plants; circular economy; natural resources (piasek; odpady mineralne; odpady piaszczyste powstające w oczyszczalniach ścieków; gospodarka o obiegu zamkniętym; zasoby naturalne)