Najlepsze ceny Specjalne oferty dla członków klubu książki PWE Najtańsza dostawa
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2023.10.3
JEL: M31, F23, L25
Thi Ngan Dam ORCID: 0009-0008-1925-9529 , e-mail: ngantdam|gmail.com| |ngantdam|gmail.com

Standardization and adaptation of international marketing activities in countries of high national identity – the case of McDonald's in Vietnam

Standaryzacja i adaptacja marketingu międzynarodowego w krajach o silnej tożsamości narodowej – przykład McDonald's w Wietnamie

The article aims to identify the consumers' perception of marketing standardization and adaptation activities deployed by multinational companies in a foreign market with a high national identity. This is analysed on the example of a fast-food chain of McDonald's in Vietnam. This paper evaluates these tactics in terms of satisfying consumer demands and the perceptions of Vietnamese consumers towards the marketing mix implementation of the company. The analysis is based on focus group interviews, observations, and online surveys conducted in Vietnam. The findings provide empirical evidence that international marketers should balance between standardization and adaptation in the marketing strategy. In countries of high national identity it is important to emphasize the company's global distinguishing features, but at the same time to show respect for local culture, including local food taste and consumer behaviour. The case of McDonald's provides recommendations for multinational companies to expand their operations and achieve their strategic goals in Vietnam.

 

Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja postrzegania przez konsumentów działań w zakresie standaryzacji i adaptacji marketingu, realizowanych przez międzynarodowe firmy na rynku o silnej tożsamości narodowej. Analiza została przeprowadzona na przykładzie sieci fast-food McDonald's w Wietnamie. Badania własne oceniają działania tego przedsiębiorstwa pod kątem zaspokojenia wymagań konsumentów w zakresie sposobu wdrożenia instrumentów marketingu mix. Analiza opiera się na zogniskowanych wywiadach grupowych, obserwacji uczestniczącej i ankietach internetowych przeprowadzonych w Wietnamie. Wyniki dostarczają empirycznych dowodów na to, że w działalności międzynarodowej marketerzy powinni zachować równowagę między standaryzacją a adaptacją w strategii marketingowej. W krajach o silnej tożsamości narodowej ważne jest podkreślanie globalnych wyróżników firmy, ale jednocześnie poszanowanie lokalnej kultury, w tym lokalnych smaków i zachowań konsumenckich. Przypadek McDonald's dostarcza rekomendacji dla międzynarodowych przedsiębiorstw chcących rozwinąć swoją działalność i osiągnąć pożądane cele strategiczne w Wietnamie.

Pobierz artykul
Słowa kluczowe: standardization; adaptation; international marketing; fast food industry; consumers' perception (standaryzacja; adaptacja; marketing międzynarodowy; branża fast food; percepcja konsumentów)

Bibliografia

Ayush, B., Arihant, J., Dev, B., & Arsh, J. (2019). Global standardization in international marketing. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development, 4(1), 116–119.

Bao, G. (2022). McDonald’s “tấn công” vào Việt Nam như thế nào? CLB Marketing. https://clbmarketing.com/marketing-chien-luoc/mcdonalds-tan-cong-vao-viet-nam-nhu-the-nao-268/ (access date: 10.06.2022).

Dilip, D. et al. (2021). Effective/differentiating marketing strategies of McDonald’s in Malaysia and Indonesia. Journal of the Community Development in Asia, 4(1), 16–33. https://doi.org/10.32535/jcda.v4i1.995

Eisenhardt, K. M., & Graebner, M. E. (2007). Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 25–32. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.24160888

Euromonitor (2017). Fast Food in Asia Pacific is on the Rise. https://www.euromonitor.com/article/fast-food-asia-pacific (access date: 23.05.2022).

Gebrekidan, D. A., Hoc, L. H., & Mukhtar, S. M. (2019). How developed-country firms make standardization/transfer and adaptations decisions in relation to their developing-host-country operations? Journal of East-West Business, 25(2), 107–143. https://doi.org/10.1080/10669868.2018.1524403

Ghauri, P., & Cateora, P. (2011). International Marketing. Edinburgh Business School.

Ghemawat, P. (2018). Redefining Global Strategy, with a New Preface: Crossing Borders in a World Where Differences Still Matter. Harvard Business Review Press.

Hanh, L. (2021). Chiến lược Marketing của McDonald’s - Phương pháp marketing 4P hiệu quả. MarketingAI. https://marketingai.vn/chien-luoc-marketing-4p-mcdonalds/ (access date: 10.06.2022)

Hofstede Insights. (2022). Vietnam. https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country/vietnam/ (access date: 16.06.2022).

Ishigai, P. A., Pereira, L. H., & Scavroni, C. M. S. (2021). Standardization and adaptation in multinationals corporations: Case study on Samsung’s marketing mix strategy. International Journal of Business Marketing, 6(1), 77–99.

Jamali, R. (2015). Online Arab Spring. Social Media and Fundamental Change. Chandos Publishing.

Jussani, A. C., Vasconcellos, E. P. G. D., Wright, J. T. C., & Grisi, C. C. D. H. E. (2018). Marketing internationalization: Influence factors on product customization decision. RAUSP Management Journal, 53(4), 555–574. https://doi.org/10.1108/rausp-07-2018-0043

Keegan, J. K., & Green, S. M. (1999). Global Marketing, 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, College Div.

Khan, H. (2020). Is marketing agility important for emerging market firms in advanced markets? International Business Review, 29(5), 101–733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2020.101733

Kotler, P., Harker, M., & Brennan, R. (2009). Marketing: An Introduction. Pearson.

McDonald’s Vietnam. (2022). https://mcdonalds.vn (access date: 18.06.2023).

McDonald’s (2022). Our History: Ray Kroc & The McDonald’s Brothers. https://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us/about-us/our-history.html (access date: 18.06.2023).

Macrotrends. (2023). Vietnam Fertility Rate 1950–2023. https://www.macrotrends.net/countries/VNM/vietnam/fertility-rate (access date: 18.06.2023).

Nguyen, N. H., Dao, R. K., Duong, T. T., Nguyen, T. T., Nguyen, V. K., & Dao, T. L. (2023). Role of consumer ethnocentrism on purchase intention toward foreign products: Evidence from data of Vietnamese consumers with Chinese products. Heliyon, 9(2), e13069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13069

Numbeo. (2022). Cost of Living in Vietnam. https://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/country_result.jsp?country=Vietnam (access date: 01.06.2022).

Onkvisit, S., & Shaw, J. J. (2009). International Marketing: Strategy and Theory, 5th edition. Routledge.

Rana, S., Prashar, S., Barai, M. K., & Hamid, A. B. A. (2021). Determinants of international marketing strategy for emerging market multinationals. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 16(2), 154–178. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijoem-09-2019-0742

Song, J. (2021). Global standardization and local adaptation of marketing: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Business Administration Research, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.30564/jbar.v4i2.2887

Theodosiou, M., & Leonidou, L. (2003). Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: An interactive assessment of the empirical research. International Business Review, 12(2), 141–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0969-5931(02)00094-x

UKEssays. (2018). The international market strategy of McDonald's. https://www.ukessays.com/essays/marketing/the-international-market-strategy-of-mcdonalds-marketing-essay.php?vref=1 (access date: 23.05.2022).

Vrontis, D., Thrassou, A., & Lamprianou, I. (2009). International marketing adaptation versus standardisation of multinational companies. International Marketing Review, 26(4/5), 477–500. https://doi.org/10.1108/02651330910971995

Westjohn, S. A., & Magnusson, P. (2017). Export performance: A focus on discretionary adaptation. Journal of International Marketing, 25(4), 70–88. https://doi.org/10.1509/jim.16.0114

Zion Market Research. (2022). Global fast food market size worth $998 billion, globally, by 2028 at 4.6% CAGR (including COVID-19 impact analysis). https://www.prnewswire.co.uk/news-releases/global-fastfood-market-size-worth-998-billion-globally-by-2028-at-4-6-cagr-including-covid-19-impact-analysis-exclusive-report-by-zion-market-research-893237336.html (access date: 23.05.2022).

Cena artykułu
18.00
Cena numeru czasopisma
70.00
Prenumerata
840.00 zł
672.00
Najniższa cena z 30 dni: 672.00
zamów prenumeratę