Najlepsze ceny Specjalne oferty dla członków klubu książki PWE Najtańsza dostawa
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2022.2.3
JEL: M31

Consequences of the new reference price for multi-channel retailers after lockdown due to SARS-CoV-2

Konsekwencje nowej ceny odniesienia dla wielokanałowych detalistów po okresie lockdownu z powodu SARS-CoV-2

The article aims to present, based on the psychological theories of consumer behaviour, the essence of a new reference price in a multichannel retail environment after lockdown due to SARS-CoV-2. Multichannel pricing is well explained in the literature; in this article authors wanted to present this issue in an actual context — they indicated the consequences in the area of price perception due to the unplanned and temporary elimination of the brick-andmortar stores. The forced customer migration to the online environment, caused by the lockdown, has current consequences for multichannel retailers as well as longterm consequences. Authors proposed a conceptual approach to the process of shaping a new reference price during the pandemic. Some practical and theoretical implications have been also provided.

Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie na podstawie wybranych psychologicznych teorii zachowań konsumentów istoty nowej ceny odniesienia w wielokanałowym środowisku po okresie lockdownu z powodu pandemii SARS-CoV-2. Różnicowanie cen w środowisku wielokanałowym jest opisane w literaturze przedmiotu. Autorzy niniejszego artykułu prezentują to zagadnienie w aktualnym kontekście — wskazują konsekwencje z zakresu postrzegania cen wywołane nieplanowanym i czasowym zamknięciem sklepów stacjonarnych w okresie pandemii. Wymuszona migracja klientów do środowiska online ma dla detalistów wielokanałowych zarówno bieżące jak i długoterminowe konsekwencje. Autorzy zaproponowali koncepcyjne podejście do procesu kształtowania nowej ceny referencyjnej podczas pandemii. Przedstawili też implikacje praktyczne i teoretyczne poruszanych w artykule zagadnień.

Pobierz artykul
Słowa kluczowe: reference price; price differentiation; price communications; multichannel sales (cena odniesienia; różnicowanie cen; komunikowanie cen; sprzedaż wielokanałowa)



Bertrandie, L., & Zielke, S. (2019). The influence of multi-channel pricing strategy on price fairness and customer confusion. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 29(5), 504–517.

Bi, W., Li, G., & Liu, M. (2017). Dynamic Pricing with Stochastic Reference Effects Based on a Finite Memory Window. International Journal of Production Research, 55(12), 3331–3348.

Bin, M., Cheung, P., Crisostomi, E., Ferraro, P., Myant, C., Parisini, T., & Shorten, R. (2020). On Fast Multi-Shot Epidemic Interventions for Post Lock-Down Mitigation: Implications for Simple Covid-19 Models.

Blakeney, J. (2016). What are the benefits of creating an omnichannel brand experience? Journal od Brand Strategy, 5(1), 57–66.

Bolton, L. E., Warlop, L., & Alba, J. W. (2003). Consumer Perceptions of Price (Un)Fairness. Journal Of Consumer Research, 29, 474–491.

Bowling, N. A. (2014). Adaptation level theory. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research.

Bowling, N. A.,. Beehr, T.A, Wagner, S. H., & Libkuman. T. M. (2005). Adaptation-level theory, opponent process theory, and dispositions: An integrated approach to the stability of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1044–1053.

Brynjolfsson, E. & Smith, M. D. (2000). Frictionless commerce? A comparison of Internet and conventional retailers. Management Science, 46(4), 563–585.

Chen K., Zha, Y., Alwan, L. C., & Zhang, L. (2019). Dynamic pricing in the presence of reference price effect and consumer strategic behaviour. International Journal of Production Research, 58(2), 1–16.

Collier, J. E., & Kimes, S. E. (2013). Only if it is Convenient: Understanding How Convenience Influences Self-Service Technology Evaluation. Journal of Service Research, 16(1), 39–51.

Crompton, J. L. (2016). Implications of Prospect Theory for the Pricing of Leisure Services. Leisure Sciences, 38(4), 1–23.

Deleersnyder, B., Geyskens, I., Gielens, K., & Dekimpe, M. G. (2002). How Cannibalistic Is the Internet Channel? A Study of the Newspaper Industry in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 19(4), 337–348.

Deloitte (2020). COVID-19 will permanently change e-commerce in Denmark. (10.12.2021).

Dutta, S., Yaprak, A., & Grewal, A. (2017). Fairness perceptions of retail price increases by foreign and domestic brands: The roles of ethnocentric beliefs, profit stickiness, and contextual information. Journal of Business Research, 75, 37–45.

Edwards, J. (2018). Harry Helson's adaptation-level theory, happiness treadmills, and behavioral economic. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 40(1), 1–22.

Fassnacht, M., & Unterhuber, S. (2016). Consumer response to online/offline price differentiation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 28, 137–148.

Farshid, M., Paschen, J., Eriksson, T., & J. Kietzmann, J. (2018). Go boldly! Explore augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) for business. Business Horizons, 61, 657–663.

Furnham, A., & Boo, H. Ch. (2011). A literature review of the anchoring effect. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40, 35–42.

Greval, D., Hardesty, D. M., & Iyer, G. R. (2004). The effects of buyer identification and purchase timing on consumers' perceptions of trust, price fairness and repurchase intentions. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(4), 87–100.

Gross, H.P., Rottler, M., & Wallmeier, F. (2021). The influence of external reference price strategies in a nonprofit arts organization's "pay-what-you-want" setting. Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, 26(1), e1681.

Heim, S., Peiseler, N., & Bekemeier, N. (2020). "Few" or "Many"? An Adaptation Level Theory Account for Flexibility in Quantifier Processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1–7.

Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-Level Theory. New York: Harper and Row.

Hilken, T., Heller, J., Chylinski, M., Keeling, D. I., Mahr, D., & de Ruyter, K. (2018). Making omnichannel an augmented reality: the current and future state of the art. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 12(4), 509–523.

Homburg, Ch., Lauer, K., & Vomberg, A. (2019). The multichannel pricing dilemma: Do consumers accept higher offline than online prices? International Journal of Research in Marketing, 36(4), 597–612.

Hu, Z., Chen X., & Hu, P. (2016). Dynamic pricing with gain-seeking reference price effects. Operations Research, 64(1), 150–157.

Karray, S., & Sigué, S. P. (2021). Multichannel retailing and price competition. International Transactions in Operational Research, 28(4), 2002–2032.

Kim J.-Ch, & Chun, S.-H. (2018). Cannibalization and competition effects on a manufacturer's retail channel strategies: Implications on an omni-channel business model. Decision Support Systems, 109, 5–14.

Kireyev, P., Kumar, V., & Ofek. E. (2017). Match your own price? Self-matching as a retailer's multichannel pricing strategy. Marketing Science, 36(6), 813–1017.

Kollmann, T., Kuckert, A., & Kayser, I. (2012). Cannibalization or synergy? Consumers' channel selection in online-offline multichannel systems. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19, 186–194.

Lemon, K. N., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 69–96.

Lipowski, M., & Bondos, I. (2018). The influence of perceived media richness of marketing channels on online channel usage: Intergenerational differences. Baltic Journal of Management, 13(2), 169–190.

Liu, S. (2013). Non-internet self-service technology failures and recoveries: comparing China with the United States. Service Business, 3, 399–417.

Lowengart, O. (2002). Reference Price Conceptualisations: An Integrative Framework of Analysis. Journal of Marketing Management, 18(1), 149–150.

Luo, X., Zhang, Y., Zeng, F., & Qu, Z. (2020). Complementarity and Cannibalization of Offline-Toonline Targeting: A Field Experiment on Omnichannel Commerce. MIS Quarterly, 44(2), 957–982.

Malekiana, Y., & Rasti-Barzokia, M. (2019). A game theoretic approach to coordinate price promotion and advertising policies with reference price effects in a two-echelon supply chain. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 51, 114–128.

Mazumdar, T., Raj, S. P., & Sinha, I. (2005). Reference Price Research: Review and Propositions. Journal of Marketing, 69(4), 84–102.

Mehra, A., Sajeesh, S., & Voleti, S. (2020). Impact of Reference Prices on Product Positioning and Profits. Production and Operations Management, 29(4), 882–892.

Melero, I., Sese, F.J., & Verhoef, P. C. (2016). Recasting the customer experience in today's omnichannel environment. Universia Business Review, 50, 18–37.

Mezias, S. J., Chen, Y.-R., & Murphy, P. R. (2002). Aspiration-Level Adaptation in an American Financial Services Organization: A Field Study. Management Science, 48(10),1285–1300.

Monroe, K. B. (1973). Buyers' Subjective Perceptions of Price. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(February), 70–80.

Neslin, N. A., & Shankar, V. (2009). Key Issues in Multi-channel Customer Management: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(1), 70–81.

Pantano, E., Pizzi, G., Scarpi, D., & Dennis, Ch. (2020). Competing during a pandemic? Retailers' ups and downs during the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Business Research, 116, 209–213.

Parise, S., Guinan, P. J., & Kafka, R. (2016). Solving the crisis of immediacy: How digital technology can transform the customer experience. Business Horizons, 56, 411–420.

Popescu, I., & Wu, Y. (2007). Dynamic pricing strategies with reference effects. Operations Research, 55(3), 413–429.

Raghubir, P. (2006). An information processing review of the subjective value of money and prices. Journal of Business Research, 59(10), 1053–1062.

Roggentin, A. S., Litt., M.,& Waldau, R. (2019). Adding Bricks to Clicks — Online Retail Evolution. Marketing Review St. Gallen, 3, 64–71.

Roy, R., Rabbanee, F. K., & Sharma, P. (2016). Antecedents, outcomes, and mediating role of internal reference prices in pay-what-you-want (PWYW) pricing. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 34(1),117–136.

Schlosser, R., & Richly, K. (2019). Dynamic pricing under competition with data-driven price anticipations and endogenous reference price effects. Journal of Revenue and Pricing, Management, 18, 451–464.

Shen, X.-L., Li, Y.-J., Sun, Y., & Wang, N. (2018). Channel integration quality, perceived fluency and omnichannel service usage: The moderating roles of internal and external usage experience. Decision Support Systems, 109, 61–73.

Silva, E. S., & Bonetti, F. S. (2021). Digital humans in fashion: Will consumers interact?. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 60, 1024–1030.

Stein, A., & Ramaseshan, B. (2016). Towards the identification of customer experience touch point elements. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 8–19.

Suri, R., Long, M., & Monroe, K. B. (2003). The impact of the Internet and consumer motivation on evaluation of prices. Journal of Business Research, 56, 379–390.

Trampe, D., Konua, U., & Verhoef, P. C. (2014). Customer Responses to Channel Migration Strategies Toward the E-channel. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(4), 257–270.

Tran, T. T. T. (2021). Managing the effectiveness of e-commerce platforms in a pandemic. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, 1–9.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1991). Loss Aversion in Riskless Choice: A Reference-dependent Model. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(4), 1039–1061.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.

Untaru, E.-N., & Han, H. (2021). Protective measures against COVID-19 and the business strategies of the retail enterprises: Differences in gender, age, education, and income among shoppers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 60, 102446.

Verhoef, P. C., Lemon, K. N., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. A. (2009). Customer experience creation: determinants, dynamics and management strategies. Journal of Retailing, 85(1), 31–41.

Verhoef, P. C., Kannan, P.K., & Inman, J.J. (2015). From multi-channel retailing to omni-channel retailing. Introduction to the special issue on multichannel retailing. Journal of Retailing, 91(2),174–181.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X. Tan, Y., Xu, L., McIntyre, R. S., Choo, F. N., Tran, B., Ho, R. V., Sharma, K., & Ho, C. (2020). A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 40–48.

Wang, N., Zhang, T., Zhu, X., & Li, P. (2021). Online-offline competitive pricing with reference price effect. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 72(3), 642–653.

Ward, S. (2020). Corona lockdown? Time to embrace a digital human AI technology elevating the human experience. (10.12.2021)

Weisstein, F. L., Choi, P., & Andersen, P. (2019). The role of external reference price in pay-what-you-want pricing: An empirical investigation across product types. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 50, 170–178.

Yang, Ch., Sun, B., & Shanks, D. R. (2018). The anchoring effect in metamemory monitoring. Memory & Cognition, 46, 384–397.

Zha, Y., Zhang, L., Xu, Ch., & Zhang, T. (2021). A two-period pricing model with intertemporal and horizontal reference price effects. International Transactions in Operational Research, 28(3),1417–1440.

Zhang S., Zhang J., Shen, J., & Tang, W. (2019). A joint dynamic pricing and production model with asymmetric reference price effect. Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization, 15(2), 667–688.

Zhao, N., Wang, Q., Cao, P., & Wu, J. (2019). Dynamic pricing with reference price effect and price-matching policy in the presence of strategic consumers. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 70(12), 2069–2083.

Zhao, N., Wang, Q., Cao, P. & Wu, J. (2021). Pricing decisions with reference price effect and risk preference customers. International Transactions in Operational Research, 28(4), 2081–2109.

Cena artykułu
Cena numeru czasopisma
840.00 zł
Najniższa cena z 30 dni: 672.00
zamów prenumeratę