Przegląd Ustawodawstwa Gospodarczego Nr 08/2008
Rok wydania: 2008
Miejsce wydania: Warszawa
Wspólnotowe reguły dopuszczalności pomocy publicznej na ochronę środowiska
Community rules for state aid for environmental protection
According to Article 6 of the EC Treaty, environmental protection requirements must be integrated into the definition and implementation of the Community policies and activities, in particular with a view to promoting sustainable development. Article 174(2) of the EC Treaty states that environment policy is to be based on the principles of precaution, prevention, rectifying pollution at source and "polluter pays". In this context the Commission underlines that the main instrument to provide environmental protection should be the "polluter pays" principle, which means that the costs of measures to deal with pollution, including the indirect costs borne by society, should be borne by the polluter who causes the pollution. However, the enforcement of this principle is difficult because the external cost of pollution is not easy to establish. By that reason a second-best option to ensure environmental protection is state aid. The main problem of applying this instrument is that it distorts competition, and that is why the use of state aid must be subject of appropriate rules. On April 2008 the Commission has adopted a new Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. The aim of the guidelines is to ensure that State aid measures will result in a higher level of environmental protection than would occur without the aid and to ensure that the positive effects of the aid outweigh its negative effects in terms of distortions of competition, taking account of the "polluter pays" principle. The Commission intends also to adopt new block exemption Regulation which will replace all previous regulations. The new Regulation will also relate to state aid for environmental protection. The author analyses Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection taking into consideration the main challenges of the European Union policy on this area.
III dyrektywa pocztowa - ostatni etap reformy sektora pocztowego w Unii Europejskiej
III Postal Directive - the final step in the reform of the postal sector in the European Union
The European Union adopted a new postal directive that aims at the full accomplishment of the internal market of postal services. The two previous directives established a regulatory framework for the postal sector at Community level. This includes measures to guarantee a universal service and the setting of maximum limits for the postal services which Member States may reserve to their universal service provider. The change that European postal markets have undergone in recent years showed that the reserved area should no longer be the preferred solution for the financing of the universal service. The main discussion concerned the final date for achieving full market opening. The adopted directive 2008/6/EC reflects the overall political agreement between the EU institutions. It establishes the date of 31 December 2010 for opening EU postal markets to full competition - with the possibility for some Member States to postpone full market opening by two more years as a maximum. Moreover, it confirms the scope and standard of universal service and includes a list of measures Member States may take to safeguard and finance, where necessary, the universal service. The new Directive is supposed to deliver growth and employment as well as ensuring the availability of an efficient service of general economic interest for all users. It is also the final step in a long reform process that has already seen large areas of EU postal markets opened to competition.
Dotychczasowe i nowe problemy wpisu do Ewidencji Działalności Gospodarczej
Former and current problems with entering the Economic Activity Register
On 1st October 2008, a set of regulations concerning the new rules of registering business activity will come into force. These regulations will replace the existing ones, that is, articles 7 and 7i from the Economic Activity Act. The approaching changes need evaluation as far as their meaning and results for the registration procedure are concerned. According to the new regulations, a registration certificate is going to be replaced with an administrative decision. This makes it extremely important to define the new legal status of the economic activity register. The new registration's legal character may change the perception of the moment when it is possible for an entrepreneur to start business activity. This article aims at analyzing the course of the monitoring proceedings connected with achieving the entrepreneur status and legalizing business activity, that precede the registration decision. The problem of entering the economic activity register needs consideration of its legal significance in the context of creating the entrepreneur status. The last part of the article is not closely connected with the question of entering the economic activity register. It concerns the requirement of transferring information to other authorities in the case of deleting an entrepreneur from the register. Analyzing this requirement makes it clear that it has been constructed in a wrong way and this consequently makes it impossible to fulfil. It is necessary to draw attention to the problem before the registering authorities have to face the wrongly constructed duty.
Wadium na tle regulacji Kodeksu cywilnego i Prawa zamówień publicznych
The deposit against a background od Civil Code and Public procurement law ragulations
The article presents the institution of a tender procedure on the basis of the ruling Civil Code regulations, as well as on the basis of Public procurement law act. The reveiewed term 'tender procedure' falls in the domain of civil law, the definition was formulated by the representatives of the civil law doctrine. The author presented deliberations on the subject of tender procedure's functions, which this institution carries out between it's participants and shows the legal consequences of stipulating the tender procedure by the parties. On account of the relevant role of tender procedure for public procurement, the issue was also submited for analysis based on current regulations of public procurement law. Therefore, the article covers the substantive issues of tender procedure in public procurement, allowable forms of depositing the tender bond by the executors, refund of a tender bond by procurer and also situations when procurer has a right to apprehend a tender bond submited by executors. Such expanded demonstration of tender procedure topic enables the better cognoscence of this institution and, in consequence, it's just implementation in economic practise.
Orzecznictwo w sprawach gospodarczych
Elżbieta Skowrońska-Bocian Sąd NajwyższyPodział sumy uzyskanej w wyniku egzekucji nieruchomości
Prawo własności intelektualnej
Czy współtwórcom dzieła audiowizualnego należy się dodatkowe wynagrodzenie za reemisję w sieciach kablowych? Kwestia wykładni art. 70 ust.2 pkt 3 Prawa autorskiego
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