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Journal of Marketing and Market Studies 12/2021

ISBN: 1231-7853
Pages: 64
Publication date: 2021
Place publication: Warszawa
Binding: paperback
Format: A4
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2021.12.1
JEL: D4, L1, L2, O3

Clusters, due to their unique properties, form an excellent space for establishing inter-organizational relationships. Cluster attributes, such as high levels of transactional trust, wide spectrum of interdisciplinary relational competences allocated in cluster members and in the cluster as a whole, contribute to maintaining the sustainability of these relationships. In turn, the sustainability of relationships depends on the quality of relational competences, which guarantee the achievement of benefits from cluster participation. The management of cluster relational competences boils down to guaranteeing the achievement of benefits stemming from cluster relations and sharing competences between entities in the cluster network. The durability of relationships, the capacity and ability to absorb assets, including knowledge from other entities, guarantees that cluster members build competitive advantages that the requirements of Industry 4.0. The cluster coordinator therefore faces the following challenge: how to efficiently and effectively manage the cluster's relational competences. Therefore, the research problem is the answer to the question of what the right course of management processes in a cluster should look like, fully utilizing the potential inherent in the cluster's entities, which at the same time would guarantee the achievement of synergistic benefits from cooperation in the cluster in the form of a pension from cooperative relations (relational pension). For the purpose of this article, the following thesis was formulated: a set of various relational competences available within a cluster and the interactions between the its members create an ecosystem which predispose the cluster to generate solutions on level with the requirements of Industry 4.0, which forces the cluster coordinator to care for the effectiveness of relational competences management.

The paper proposes of a model for managing the relational competences within a cluster, taking into account the demands of Industry 4.0. It is written based on a review of literature on inter-organizational relations, relational competences, and cluster management and development factors, cluster management, and the challenges of Industry 4.0. This article contributes to the literature on the management of relational competences in clusters in the face of the challenges of Industry 4.0. Moreover, it enriches the literature with a postulated model of relational competence management across cluster and can be a practical tool for improving the efficiency of the managing clusters as ecosystems of open innovation.

Keywords: cluster; cluster management; relations; cluster relation competence; relation competence management in clusters; Industry 4.0
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2021.12.2
JEL: D12, D91, L83, M31

The article is of a research nature. It aims to identify the most important factors determining the quality of services offered by dance schools. To achieve the set goal, the SERVQUAL method was used. This method allows determining the most desirable features of dance schools by the students and combines them into several categories: "specifics", "reliability", "willingness to cooperate", "certainty", "empathy". These features form the five dimensions of service quality and decide whether the customer will accept the company's offer. They are also the foundation of the process of building customer satisfaction of every service company. The results of the research obtained on a nationwide sample of 265 participants of dance schools indicate that among the surveyed dimensions, "certainty" and "reliability" are the most important for the respondents. On the other hand, the most irrelevant is "empathy". The presented results, despite the limitations resulting from the lack of full representativeness of the sample and the used technique (online survey), in the author's opinion may be a support and great source of information for managers of dance schools and be a contribution to the continuation of research in the undertaken area.

Keywords: quality of services; consumer behavior; dance school; marketing; SERVQUAL; the market of leisure services
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2021.12.3
JEL: M14, M31, M51

A positive image of the company is one of the determinants of the success of any company. It significantly influences gaining a competitive advantage which leads to a strong position in the market. Companies that maintain a positive image build trust among regular and potential consumers. An important issue in the subject of the image of the company is the image of the company as an employer, and one of the tools for building it are social media, which in today's society play an important communication function. In order to build a more effective image of the employer, the message should be directed to the target group, defined for example by belonging to a specific generation. Employees from different generations are characterized by certain features, needs and values, so it is important that communication channels are tailored to a specific recipient. The aim of the article is to systematize knowledge in the field of the image of the company as an employer, factors shaping it and the role of social media in the process of shaping a positive image. The method of research was survey research using the CAWI technique.

Keywords: social media; the image of the employer; generations X; Y; Z
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2021.12.4
JEL: M30, O31, Q55, Q56

Nowadays, striving for practical implementation of the sustainable development concept more and more often determines the directions of market institutions' activities and, above all, the innovations they implement. These organisations pay special attention not only to the optimisation of production and distribution processes, but also to the functionality and efficiency of the buildings in which their offices or shops are located. It is worth pointing out that buildings can fulfil the triple bottom line concept — contributing to achieving economic, social and environmental goals by market institutions. A modern organisation, when building its factory or office buildings, should pay attention not only to the visual attractiveness of the building, but also to its functionality, low maintenance costs, social usefulness and minimising negative impact on the natural environment. The main aim of the article is to present the features that meet the requirements of sustainable development on the example of The Crystal building and to indicate the market benefits resulting from the use of this type of solutions. Particular attention was paid to economic, social and environmental profits. As part of the analysis, the case study method was used, based on the use of secondary data. Based on the considerations, it was found that The Crystal building is distinguished not only by its visually unique design, but also it is an integral part of its surroundings. It can serve as an inspiration for market institutions that strive to deliver more sustainable products.

Keywords: sustainable construction; triple bottom line; sustainable development; ecological architecture; smart buildings
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2021.12.5
JEL: L26, M21

The aim of the article is to indicate in an organised and condensed way the non-repayable and unpaid sources of start-up funding in the Polish ecosystem, as well as the analysis of their accessibility. The research material has been based on data and information included in the publications and reports provided by the institutions supporting the development of start-ups and innovations (e.g. NCBR, PARP, PFR, Startup Poland), the Internet websites of public support systems (containing the competition regulations and documentation) together with numerous websites of private entities (containing program regulations and documentation). The analysis has been formed in respect of non-returnable forms of support, subjective and objective scope, along with the amount of funding. As a result the shortcomings of the non-repayable start-up funding system in Poland have been exposed.

Keywords: startup; financing sturtup's; startup ecosystem
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