Journal of Marketing and Market Studies 9/2021
Publication date: 2021
Place publication: Warszawa
The aim of the paper is to identify determinants and models explaining consumer behavior. As a research method, critical and comparative literature review was chosen. The types of determinants influencing consumer behavior were characterized. Next consumer behawior models published in a worldwide literature were analyzed and compared. As a conclusion it was stated that analyzed models consider numerous aspects of consumer behawior and also structure them to the form of consumer decisionmaking process and their behaviors. Still there is no model proposed which would explain consumer behawior considering all of the discussed aspects.
The purpose of city management is to achieve set development goals. The effectiveness of city management translates not only into the achievement of the city's development goals, but also into a sense of quality of life in the city. Nowadays, city management using the smart city idea has become a requirement for making decisions on the direction of city development, as well as on the principles to be followed in decisionmaking processes related to their functioning. A key issue is the selection of appropriate instruments for achieving the objectives set. This implies the need to develop a set of rules defining how to control and guide the city's development and which principles should be applied in relations with all stakeholders. The question of how and to what extent the city's resources should be used in order to improve the quality of life is also important. When taking any decision concerning the functioning of a city, the potential effects of that decision on all spheres of city life should be taken into account. Many publications point to the need to develop an integrated and holistic approach to the smart city. Researchers emphasise the need to identify approaches that integrate urban transformation and involve a wide range of stakeholders and actors both in defining the problem and in finding solutions and conditions in developing shared visions. The response to those needs seems to be urban foresight, the essence of which is to create and build a vision of the future in cooperation between city authorities and a wide group of stakeholders from the local community. In the search for relations between urban foresight and the smart city concept, attention is drawn in the literature to the growing interest of city leaders and local stakeholders in smart city initiatives, which make extensive use of technology to solve urban problems. The aim of the paper is to identify best practices in the possibilities of incorporating foresight research into the implementation process of the smart city concept. The paper adopts a review and conceptual character of the scientific study.
The objective of the article is to evaluate the entrepreneurship development of Poland and to compare its performance against neighbouring countries in the same region. Entrepreneurial ecosystem of Poland was described using data from European statistics, Global Competitiveness, Doing Business, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and Global Entrepreneurship Index. Moreover, the results were compared to the neighbouring countries in the same region in order to determine strengths and weaknesses of Polish entrepreneurial system and possibilities of enhancing the state position. This paper identifies the vulnerable aspects of Poland's entrepreneurship performance through a wide spectrum of sources that finally help to combine many variables in a single model. Prepared analysis helps to detect which entrepreneurial components should be addressed.
Poland's entrepreneurial performance is relatively sufficient compared to some countries in the same region. Poland's entrepreneurial profile strengths are the imperceptible disproportion between women and men in entrepreneurship, with main weakness being lowering TEA (total early entrepreneurial activity) indicators in total and that TEA-type activities are rarely carried out by people aged 55–64 and 18–24. Poland should focus on intensifying activities towards streamlining of the administration serving entrepreneurs, procedural requirements and application execution time, promotion of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education and on long-term building of entrepreneurial attitudes, aspirations and skills.The main limitation of the research is that the analysis uses only international reports and statistics, without considering national studies and other partial studies.
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