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Material Economy and Logistics 07/2021

ISBN: 1231-2037
Pages: 41
Publication date: 2021
Place publication: Warszawa
Binding: paperback
Format: A4
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2021.7.1
JEL: L23, M11, C61

The paper presents the problem of the optimization of the length of the series and production batch, and thus the optimal frequency of production changeovers, taking into account the total cost approach and the use of the simulation method. The author has developed a model which, with the given parameters (costs and time of production changeover, costs of maintaining stocks of finished products and storage, value of manufactured products, sales variability and predictability), allows to calculate the economic effects of determining the length of a series and a production batch. In the author's opinion, the simulation method (at least in some cases) may be more appropriate in solving the problem of determining the optimal length of a series or production batch than the use of mathematical formulas. The calculations also took into account the impact of series and batch optimization on the company's profitability in order to assess the significance of this problem for financial results. The calculations were performed for two sample products and for two probability distributions — Gauss and Gamma. The results of the research show that the optimization of the production series may be important from the point of view of economic efficiency, that mathematical formulas may be less suitable for calculating the optimal production series than computer simulation, and that, in the case of significant variability of the sales level, in addition to the costs of changing production and maintaining inventories, lost sales costs should also be taken into account.

Keywords: production management; manufacturing processes; optimal production series; optimal production batch; computer simulation; trade-off; trade up; SMED; costs of production; costs of maintaining inventories; lost sales costs
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2021.7.2
JEL: M1, M5, J44, J24

Due to the different values shared by individual generations and different work ethos, the labor market faces a huge challenge in adapting to the expectations of four generations: BB, X, Y and Z. The most digitized generation is Generation Z. Nowadays, there is more and more talk about the virtualization of logistics networks as part of the so-called 3rd IT platform SMAC (Social, Mobile, Analytics, Cloud). The SMAC platform is adopted in the TSL industry in the form of electronic freight exchange (EFE). The dynamic change on the labor market, including TSL industry, caused by the COVID-19 pandemics, determines the spread of remote work, which is part of the so-called virtualization of work. It is important from the perspective of the competences held by employees representing particular generations with a focus on Generation Z, who treat virtual work and virtual life as a natural daily existence. The main aim of the article is to assess the Generation Z's ability to work with the use of EFE as an attractive ICT tool in the TSL industry. The article presents the thesis that EFE is an innovative work tool in the TSL industry for the Generation Z representatives, which can be used to minimize and/or eliminate intergenerational conflicts. The article reviews the professional literature and uses the method of a simplified version of the expert panel (expert survey) in the form of a standardized interview.

Keywords: generation Z; TSL; electronic freight exchange; labor market
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2021.7.3
JEL: F170; L11; M15

The article presents data on the number of passengers transported by domestic and international passenger air transport in the United States on a monthly basis in the years 2003–2020 and their forecasting for 2021. The research began with the analysis and evaluation of two time series concerning the number of passengers transported by passenger air transport in the United States in terms of national and international approach. The Klein model was built, which was used to forecast the time series of the number of passengers transported by domestic air transport on a monthly basis for the year 2021. The constructed model is a combination of quantitative and qualitative forecasting.

Keywords: transport; air transport; forecasting; COVID-19; time series analysis
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2021.7.4
JEL: Q53

During the age of progressing consumerism, there is an urgent need to seek innovative solutions aimed at saving the scarce natural resources and the prevention of waste huge amounts of non-recyclable. The dynamic development of road transport leads to the formation of extremely problematic waste from the environmental point of view, namely tires. Storing tires requires a very large amount of expenditure in the form of a specially designated area, because they do not undergo a natural biodegradation process. In addition, under the influence of high temperatures, which are exposed to the impact of the waste deposited in inappropriate conditions, there is the release of toxic substances for the environment. Due to the above, it is currently forbidden to create new waste tire storage sites throughout the European Union, which is regulated by relevant directives. This waste must be subjected to efficient recovery and recycling processes which eliminate the problem of their disposal, while contributing to reducing the consumption of raw materials used for production of new tires. The answer to this need is thermal processing, specifically the pyrolysis process. It is currently the most efficient method of rubber waste disposal, with simultaneous energy recovery without dividing the waste into separate fractions. The aim of the article is to indicate the outputs from the thermal management of problematic rubber waste.

Keywords: thermal processing; rubber wastes; pyrolysis
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