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DOI: 10.33226/0137-5490.2024.2.1
JEL: K23

The notion of energy solidarity in EU law. Conclusions of the CJEU judgment in the OPAL case, C-848/19P

Pojęcie solidarności energetycznej w prawie UE. Wnioski z wyroku TSUE w sprawie OPAL, C-848/19P

'A spirit of solidarity' in the EU energy policy (Article 194 TFEU) has raised questions about its nature and scope. It was initially treated as an abstract, purely political concept, not as a legal criterion for assessing the validity of European Union acts. Due to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), energy solidarity now constitutes a specific expression of the principle of solidarity, which is itself one of the fundamental principles of EU law. Whilst confirming the legal nature of the energy solidarity, the CJEU did not indicate how it should be applied. A certain solution seems necessary to ensure legal transparency. The multi-directional development of the EU energy policy is a challenge, as it includes – in the process of developing the internal market – not only energy security, but competitiveness, sustainable development, and in particular climate change. The energy solidarity standard is an attempt to find an adequate regulatory solution.

„Duch solidarności” w polityce energetycznej UE (art. 194 TFUE) rodził wątpliwości co do jego charakteru i zakresu. Początkowo był on traktowany jako abstrakcyjna, czysto polityczna koncepcja, a nie jako prawne kryterium oceny ważności aktów Unii Europejskiej. Za sprawą Trybunału Sprawiedliwości Unii Europejskiej (TSUE) solidarność energetyczna stanowi obecnie szczególny wyraz zasady solidarności, która sama w sobie jest jedną z podstawowych zasad prawa UE. Potwierdzając charakter prawny solidarności energetycznej, TSUE nie wskazał jednak, w jaki sposób należy ją stosować. Pewne rozwiązanie wydaje się niezbędne dla zapewnienia przejrzystości prawa. Wielokierunkowy rozwój polityki energetycznej UE jest wyzwaniem, gdyż obejmuje – w procesie rozwoju rynku wewnętrznego – nie tylko bezpieczeństwo energetyczne, ale także konkurencyjność, zrównoważony rozwój, a w szczególności zmiany klimatu. Standard solidarności energetycznej jest próbą znalezienia odpowiedniego rozwiązania regulacyjnego.

Słowa kluczowe: internal market; energy policy; energy solidarity principle; sustainable development; competition (rynek wewnętrzny; polityka energetyczna; zasada solidarności energetycznej; zrównoważony rozwój; konkurencja)


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