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Lic. Kamil Pawłowski
ORCID: 0000-0003-0483-921X

Kamil Pawłowski

Graduate of the Bachelor's degree in Administration, student of the Bachelor's degree in Tourism and Recreation. His scientific interests are focused on transport aspects, especially rail transport.

DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2023.3.7
JEL: L91, L92, L98

Cross-border railroads are a fast way to move to another country. Trains are a means of transportation with relatively low border crossing formalities. Currently, Poland conducts cross-border passenger rail traffic with almost all of its neighbours: Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine and Lithuania. The worldwide pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has disrupted passenger transportation between countries. In Poland, it affected the schedules of trains running to neighbouring countries. The number of courses was reduced, and some routes were completely suspended. Cross-border traffic was also not unaffected by the war in Ukraine. The fundamental purpose of the article is to present an analysis of cross-border connections and to assess their quality, indicate the direction of change after the COVID-19 pandemic. The article examines the network of connections available at this point and discusses them in terms of transport accessibility. The results of the analysis will be used to compare rail connections with each other and, as a result, to identify certain relationships. The content presented will help to answer the question of whether cross-border rail after pandemic has undergone a significant transformation, and what is the direction of the observed changes. These considerations may inspire further research into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the operation of cross-border rail crossings and connections between Poland and its neighbours.

Keywords: rail transport; cross-border rail; international traffic; COVID-19
DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2022.4.4
JEL: L91, L92, L98

Connections between voivodship cities are very important as they facilitate not only the movement of people, but also of capital, information and other resources. These functions are fulfilled by the railway connection between Krakow and Katowice. The main academic and industrial centres etc. are located in these cities. On the route Kraków– Katowice there are: a part of the Krakow agglomeration and a part of the Upper Silesian conurbation. For many years these cities have suffered from unsatisfactory journey times and a low number of trains. Travelers who wanted to use public transport services were left to use buses. From December 2020, the number of train services on this route has been increased and journey times significantly reduced. On this route, the number of connections operated by PKP Intercity, POLREGIO increased. A few courses of Koleje Śląskie have also appeared. This phenomenon has a positive impact, because the competition between rail and bus transport has started. The main purpose of the article is to examine the consequences of the modernization of the railway line connecting Krakow and Katowice and its impact on the network of connections. The secondary one is to compare the offers of carriers. The article focuses on parameters related to: the number of connections per day, travel time and the number of stations served. These considerations may be an inspiration for further research on the network of connections between metropolitan cities, such as Krakow and Katowice.

Keywords: Kraków; Katowice; rail transport; connections between cities; transport availability
DOI: 10.33226/1231-7853.2021.12.4
JEL: M30, O31, Q55, Q56

Nowadays, striving for practical implementation of the sustainable development concept more and more often determines the directions of market institutions' activities and, above all, the innovations they implement. These organisations pay special attention not only to the optimisation of production and distribution processes, but also to the functionality and efficiency of the buildings in which their offices or shops are located. It is worth pointing out that buildings can fulfil the triple bottom line concept — contributing to achieving economic, social and environmental goals by market institutions. A modern organisation, when building its factory or office buildings, should pay attention not only to the visual attractiveness of the building, but also to its functionality, low maintenance costs, social usefulness and minimising negative impact on the natural environment. The main aim of the article is to present the features that meet the requirements of sustainable development on the example of The Crystal building and to indicate the market benefits resulting from the use of this type of solutions. Particular attention was paid to economic, social and environmental profits. As part of the analysis, the case study method was used, based on the use of secondary data. Based on the considerations, it was found that The Crystal building is distinguished not only by its visually unique design, but also it is an integral part of its surroundings. It can serve as an inspiration for market institutions that strive to deliver more sustainable products.

Keywords: sustainable construction; triple bottom line; sustainable development; ecological architecture; smart buildings
DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2021.6.4
JEL: H12, L91, L92, L98

The ongoing epidemic of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has had many negative social and economic consequences. The COVID-19 pandemic has also fundamentally changed the way rail transport is managed. Due to the threat of SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission, the demand for rail crossings has decreased. In addition, restrictions began to take effect on public transport, including compulsory mouth and nose coverings, as well as restrictions on passenger numbers. The emergency situation also affected the current rail network, thus limiting the transport offers. The fundamental aim of the article is to review the changes in rail transport with regard to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to examine the degree of inconvenience to passengers. For this purpose, a case study method was used to analyze the way PKP Intercity operates. EIP and EIC class trains were used as examples. The presented work will allow to indicate some relations between the number of cancelled trains and alternative connections and waiting time for them. The analysis of the network of connections will make it possible to indicate the most affected railway routes in connection with the suspension of trains. Another aim of the article is to sort out the course of restrictions on rail transport related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus epidemic. The publication may inspire further research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of passenger rail transport.

Keywords: rail transport; public transport; PKP Intercity; COVID-19; crisis