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Dr hab. inż. Bożena Gajdzik
ORCID: 0000-0002-0408-1691

Dr hab. inż. Bożena Gajdzik

PhD BEng, employed in the Silesia University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Department of Industrial Informatics. Vice-dean for cooperation and development. Deals with problems of management of metallurgical companies, monitoring the scope of changes introduced in that industry after the period of systemic transformation in Poland and in the context of implementation of Industry 4.0.

DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2022.4.3
JEL: M11

Materials management was presented on the example of the sinter production process in a metallurgical company. The work was an analytical case study type. The empirical part of the work presents the process of preparing raw materials for sinter production and an analysis of the effectiveness of materials, raw materials and feed resources management at the entrance to sinter production was carried out. OEE indicators were used to evaluate the efficiency of the sintering device. The prepared and presented process belongs to the area of production materials management and production logistics.

Keywords: materials management; sintering process; metallurgical company
DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2021.9.4
JEL: J28

The article is of a theoretical and practical nature and it contains a statistical analysis. It presents the problem of the occurrence of accidents reported for transport activities and storage in Poland in 2014–2019 (a six-year analysis). The analysis included the determination of accident rates: frequency and severity of consequences. The demographic characteristics of the injured persons, such as sex, age, length of service, were also analyzed. The conducted analyzes allowed for an assessment of occupational safety in the field of transport activities and storage. The conducted study made it possible to identify groups of workers that are most often exposed to accidents at work. The aim of the study was to assess occupational safety in the field of transport activities and storage, taking particular account of and identifying professional groups to which special attention should be paid during training in the area of building awareness of safe behavior in the workplace. Identification of professional groups in which accidents are most often registered and the application of effective protective and training prophylaxis may translate into an improvement in work safety.

Keywords: transport activities and storage; accident at work; accident rates
DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2021.5.1
JEL: M29

This paper presents an image of the machine and equipment operator in the context of the development of industrial cyberphysical systems and adaptive automation in manufacturing companies. The development of technology makes new challenges for machine and equipment operators. The concept of Industry 4.0, which has been lashed for a decade, is shaping a new work environment for operators who operate machinery and equipment. Industry 4.0 is the term used for technological advances in the fourth industrial revolution. Advanced information and communication technologies, supported by full automation and robotization, the Internet of Things and cloud computing to control production, are changing the existing ways of operating machinery and equipment. There are discussions in the literature around the role of machine and equipment operators in modern factories. Secondary sources of information was the basis for outlining the general (framework) conditions of work and profile of the operator of machinery and equipment in Industry 4.0. The aim of this paper is an introduction to the broad topic of issues about the role of the operators of machinery and equipment in cyber-physical systems of production.

Keywords: Industry 4.0; machines and equipment operator; cyber-physical production systems
DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2020.12.3
JEL: L61

The publication presents the analysis of the coke intensity for the Polish steel sector using descriptive statistics. The resource intensity is one of the important measures for assessing the sustainability of the economy, industry and enterprises. Coke is the basic material (resource) used in metallurgy for the production of steel. Coke intensity in the steel industry is a measure of the processing and coke intensity (consumption) by integrated steel mills, i.e. ones equipped with installations of blast furnaces and converters. The article presents an analysis of the coke consumption in the steel production process in Poland. Coking plants in Poland offer steel coke, foundry coke, heating coke and export coke (this explanation is important for understanding the scope of the analysis). This paper presents the coke oven market in Poland (historical changes) together with the coke production volume in 1995–2019. Then, comparisons were made of the coke production volume with the pig iron production and the production of steel produced in the BF + BOF technology (short for Blast Furnace + Basic Oxygen Furnace). The performed analysis may be useful in assessing the impact of the coke and steel industry on the sustainability of the economy in the area of resource consumption, on the example of coke production. The added value of the article is a long-term historical presentation of coke intensity. The analysis was based on industry data presented annually for the past 25 years. The aim of the research (analysis) was to fix the level of coke intensity in the market relation: supplier and producer.

Keywords: resources; resource intensity; coke; coke industry; steel intensity
DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2020.6.3

of the industry in an economy. Indicators of steel intensity are used at the level of an economy or particular industry sectors. The choice of indicators is therefore conditioned by the spatial scope of the analysis: macroeconomic or mesoeconomic approach. This paper presents the level of steel intensity of the Polish economy and particular sectors of the industry. The analysis shows the differentiation of the analyzed steel intensity by using particular indicators in an economy and industry sectors. Obtained ranges of the analysis were compared with the level of steel intensity in the EU and in the world. The analysis extends the knowledge of steel consumption in the economy and industry.

Keywords: economy; steel production; steel intensity
DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2020.4.1
JEL: M11

The article presents scenarios of machine operation and maintenance in the cyber-physical production systems in Industry 4.0. The inspiration for the publication is the growing popularity of the concept of Industry 4.0. The integration of different technologies: electronics, computer technology, industrial robotics, artificial intelligence etc., have contributed to the change in the ways of machine operation and maintenance (we say about machine we think about robots). Cyber-physical production systems are built with different units, objects, and they are the fundamental pillars of Industry 4.0, completely change the robots service. Traditional technology required continuous supervision, maintenance and operation of machines. Employees were required both during the start-up of the machines and during their operation. Cyber-physical production systems, unlike homogeneous systems, are systems with different elements (components) and characteristics, and the participation of the operators (employees) in these systems is kept to a minimum or completely eliminated. Intangible components of the production system, e.g. computer programmes, data processing and transmission, controls the operation of devices. The goal of this publication is to initiate a discussion about scenarios of changes in the technical exploitation of machines in cyber-physical production systems in Industry 4.0.

Keywords: machine; maintenance; cyber-physical production systems; Industry 4.0