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Material Economy and Logistics 01/2024

ISSN: 1231-2037
Pages: 76
Publication date: 2024
Place publication: Warszawa
Binding: paperback
Format: A4
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2024.1.1
JEL: D22, M21

The article constitutes the first part of the study, the aim of which is to present the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on logistics on the example of selected Polish manufacturing, trade and service enterprises. The article is based on the study of literature and own empirical research. The research was conducted in 2022 among 335 randomly selected small, medium and large Polish manufacturing, trade and service enterprises. As a result of the research, it was found that the COVID-19 pandemic had a huge influence on logistics in all surveyed enterprises in 2020–2021. Changes in logistics conditions caused by the pandemic overlapped with the logistics determinants of contemporary enterprises before the pandemic. Strategic and operational management of logistics processes increasingly determined the economic and market results of the best surveyed enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enterprises achieving the best results during the pandemic implemented the supply chain management strategy that was in a constant state of creation and development, characterized by an immediate response to changing customer requirements, environmental conditions and competitors' activities, respecting, at the same time, the principles of sustainable development. During the pandemic, the most effective logistics managers took quick actions so as to reduce the likelihood of disruption, decrease the severity of the effects of events, and create and maintain competitive advantages of their enterprises.

Keywords: logistics; logistics processes; enterprise; supply chain management; competitive advantage; COVID-19 pandemic
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2024.1.2
JEL: F50, R41, R42

The main aim of the paper is a comparative analysis of the research results presented in four research projects on e-customer preferences in last-mile delivery conducted recently on the Polish e-commerce market as: Gemius Poland, PostNord and Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Logistics and Warehousing Network, and own research financed by Polish National Science Center under the title "Sustainable last-mile logistics and e-commerce returns. Perspective of various stakeholder groups". E-customers in Poland are mainly guided by price, safety and delivery service standards; trust in the supplier is also important. Interestingly, in the context of the development of pro-ecological trends, it is still of minor importance for Polish e-customers whether the delivery is environmentally-friendly, including whether it is possible to return the goods in an "environment-friendly" manner. A comparative analysis of research projects regarding e-customer preferences allows to identify similarities and differences in the scope of research results, identify a cognitive gap, and define directions and recommendations for further e-customer market research. The results obtained may also contribute to the formulation of recommendations for e-commerce and logistics companies regarding e-customer preferences for last-mile delivery to increase customer satisfaction, improve efficiency, and create competitiveness.

Keywords: e-commerce; last-mile delivery; e-customer preferences; comparative analysis; meta-analysis
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2024.1.3
JEL: H56, H54

The subject of research presented in the article are the processes taking place in the national security environment, determining the need to strengthen defence capabilities in terms of protecting critical infrastructure facilities of the state. The purpose of the research is to check, verify and evaluate the functioning of the critical infrastructure protection system of the state and to demonstrate the need for its protection in the light of possible threats. From the opinions of experts in the field of national security, a research hypothesis emerges, which shows that despite taking multidirectional actions, the state administration operating at many organizational levels is not able to foresee all the threats that lie in wait for critical infrastructure facilities. Empirical research methods were used in the study: analysis and criticism of the literature, desk research and a diagnostic survey conducted using the interview technique with experts and military analysts. From the theoretical methods, the following were used: analysis, synthesis, and inference methods. The conducted research shows that there are premises to ensure that critical infrastructure facilities are effectively protected against harmful and destructive intentional or random actions. The problem in ensuring proper protection of critical infrastructure is the fact that they are a relatively accessible and easy target for terrorist attacks, sabotage groups or special groups. Therefore, steps should first be taken to identify which facilities and systems constitute critical infrastructure of strategic, regional and local importance.

Keywords: state security; critical infrastructure; threats; protection; defensive abilities
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2024.1.4
JEL: Q16, Q44, Q55

The paper presents the possibilities of using wood, waste and energy plant biomass as a material for the production of fuels in the form of pellets. Pine sawdust, energy willow chips, sunflower husk and corn straw were analysed. The materials were pelletized. Selected physicochemical properties and elemental composition were determined. It has been shown that the best alternative to replace wood pellets can be pellets made from both energy willow and sunflower husks. Sunflower husk pellets were selected as the most promising fuel and subjected to a strategic analysis using the SWOT/TOWS method. Based on the analyses, it was shown that sunflower husk pellets, due to their competitive price, appropriate physicochemical parameters and wide availability, can be successfully used as a fuel in boilers adapted to burn wood pellets and more.

Keywords: biomass pellets; waste; alternative fuels; energy plants; SWOT/TOWS analysis
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2024.1.5

The paper presents an analysis of the operation of 24 light commercial vehicles that constitute the transportation fleets of seven companies carrying out transport orders over a period of two years. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of operation of various light commercial vehicles with a focus on three groups formed according to their initial mileage, year of manufacture, or vehicle model. An evaluation of the effectiveness of each transport company is also presented. Based on an analysis of daily observations, technical and operational parameters were determined to be used as the basis for the development of a set of operational indicators that would enable evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the performance of transport tasks. The proposed method for examining the effectiveness of operation of light commercial vehicles showed significant differences in the vehicle operation management strategies of various transportation companies. The developed set of operational indicators can be used as a tool to support decision-making in terms of safety in the performance of transport tasks and the effectiveness of the vehicle operation process.

Keywords: operation of light commercial vehicles; cost effectiveness; safety of transport operations; indicator analysis
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2024.1.6
JEL: I18, L90, O18, O44, Q56, R41

The growing crowding of city centres and the related air and noise pollution cause discomfort for residents. The use of alternative forms of transport should be promoted. The general aim of the article is to show how changing the way of traveling to an ecological one reduces the risk of road accidents while constituting an element of the green transport policy. Theoretical considerations include a literature review and the principles of sustainable development, including green transport. The empirical part examines how the Sustainable Development Goal SDG-13 titled actions in the field of climate protection (such as limiting the use of combustion cars) is related to road safety, which is part of the SDG-3 goal: good health and quality of life. A study of road accidents in Poland confirmed the thesis that the risk of being involved in a traffic accident is lower when traveling by bicycle, motorcycle or on foot compared to driving a passenger car, which may be an argument encouraging employees and residents to change their vehicle from an internal combustion passenger car to a more ecological and at the same time, it will contribute to the implementation of sustainable development goals in the environmental aspect.

Keywords: green transport; road accidents; stakeholder management; sustainable development
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