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Material Economy and Logistics 08/2022

ISSN: 1231-2037
Pages: 32
Publication date: 2022
Place publication: Warszawa
Binding: paperback
Format: A4
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2022.8.1
JEL: L91, L92, L93, N70, O18, R41

The main objective of the publication is to define the role and importance of shipment of dangerous goods in transport and freight forwarding, with particular emphasis on Poland. In the first part of the dissertation, the concept of dangerous goods was defined. Also, the types of vehicles used for their movement were presented and shipping modes used to transport dangerous goods were identified along with the requirements for shipment of dangerous goods and proper attention to the equipment and marking of the cargo and the means of transport carrying such dangerous goods. Moreover, methods and ways of securing the loads during their movement were indicated. This part identifies the obligations of carriers during the shipment of dangerous goods (divided into particular modes of transport). The second part of the publication deals with international regulation taking into account the mode of transport (ADR, RID, IDMG, ICAO) and underlines its importance in EU law. Attention was drawn to the results of the analysis of the organisation and implementation of the transport process of dangerous goods in Poland. These issues have been discussed i the context of the legislation and a model for their use in the transport of dangerous goods has been presented. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the most frequently used mode of transport for these goods, on the basis of which land transport management has been assessed. The evaluation of transport related to the adequacy of legislation on the transport of goods. Examples of difficulties and irregularities in Polish legislation in the field of transport of dangerous goods were also identified. The evaluation of the management of the transport of dangerous goods was the starting point for proposals to improve and modify the transport of dangerous goods.

Keywords: dangerous goods; shipment of dangerous goods; international legal regulations; transport and forwarding of dangerous goods
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2022.8.2
JEL: D3, L91, O32, Q56, P47

Currently companies are facing the need to improve the efficiency of logistics processes by providing up-to-date information about storage and transport conditions to their customers. This necessitates the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) as well as processing and analysing large data sets. The authors asked themselves about the effects of implementation of IoT sensors which was the reason for taking up this topic. The authors put forward a hypothesis: The use of IoT sensors can positively affect the work and reduce costs in the company. To verify this hypothesis two objectives have been adopted. The first, of a theoretical nature, consists in setting out the definitional framework and possibilities of using the IoT in supply chain management. The second, of a practical nature, concerns the presentation of the implementation of the IoT and determining the potential effects and benefits for Raben Group. One of the most important achievements of this article is a literature review on the effects of IoT implementation. The implementation of IoT technology in Raben Group has allowed for achieving business results such as: increasing data quality, freeing employees from monotonous work, increasing system redundancy, increasing supply chain transparency and reducing costs. The article is an original approach to the effects of implementation of IoT sensors by indicating ones which are the most common in the literature as well as those observed by Raben Group.

Keywords: Internet of Things; effects of IoT; supply chain management
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DOI: 10.33226/1231-2037.2022.8.3
JEL: D18, L81, L67

Adapting the return policy to the changing market situation became particularly important challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. A well-developed and liberal return policy was a determinant of the overall level of service offered by the company for consumers and contributed to increasing customer loyalty. While there is a great deal of research available that looks at characteristics of e-commerce in general, relatively there is little known about the extent of consumer returns, particularly in relation to the current impact of the COVID- 19 pandemic. However, such data is necessary for a number of reasons. For example, to better prepare the pricing policy or to calculate the profitability of a selected e-commerce business model. The aim of the article is to present the changes taking place in the consumer return policy both in stationary and online transactions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The consumer regulations of various retail stores, from the fashion industry, will be analyzed.

Keywords: returns; returns policy; customer service; COVID-19 pandemic
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