Best prices Special offers for members of the PWE book club The cheapest delivery

Journal of Marketing and Market Studies 08/2022

ISSN: 0137-5490
Pages: 56
Publication date: 2022
Place publication: Warszawa
Binding: paperback
Format: A4
Article price
As file to download
4.00
Buy article
Price of the magazine number
15.00
Annual subscription 2024 (12 consecutive numbers)
197.00 €
158.00
Lowest price in last 30 days: 158.00
197.00 €
158.00
Lowest price in last 30 days: 158.00
From number:
Semi-annual subscription 2024 (6 consecutive numbers)
99.00 €
89.00
Lowest price in last 30 days: 89.00
99.00 €
89.00
Lowest price in last 30 days: 89.00
From number:
DOI: 10.33226/0137-5490.2022.8.1
JEL: K23, K32, L43

The main aim of the paper is to indicate the conditions that make strict price regulation on the heat market necessary to ensure the proper functioning of this market, and the consequences of such regulation. The shape of regulations on the heat market has been characterized as a result of the basic features of the heat market and its distinctiveness from other sectors of the energy market. Strict regulation of the heating sector results from the objective need to ensure a level of balance between market participants of the heating sector's specificity. The author indicates to a specific paradox of the system heat market, according to which the possible development of competition on the heat energy market could be counterproductive. This particular situation could lead to ineffective allocation of capital by market participants, including excessive expansion of generation capacity to the extent that this capacity cannot actually be used for the needs of its consumers. This, in turn, would inevitably lead to an increase in costs borne by heat consumers on a given market or could endanger the profitability of a heating company and eventually, to consumers' energy security.

Keywords: heat market; price regulation; development of competition
Download article
DOI: 10.33226/0137-5490.2022.8.2
JEL: G21, H53, H81, K39

defined subjective and objective boundaries using methods appropriate for banking activities. It is a program of supporting the development of social rental housing, its significant part is dedicated to people with moderate incomes who are not interested in satisfying their housing needs by acquiring the ownership right to housing units. The aim of the article is to analyze and to evaluate the legal regulations regarding the repayable financing mechanism of the so-called investment and construction projects carried out by social housing initiatives, housing associations and municipal companies. The legal structure of the repayable financing mechanism, uses the form of a loan granted on preferential terms, relating primarily to the principles of its interest rate and the repayment period. The quantitative and quality effects achieved in the middle of the 10-year implementation period of this program confirm that the legislator's intervention in the construction of the repayable financing mechanism was justified and resulted in an increase in investors' interest. Maintaining this trend requires, however, further improvement of legal regulations, which constitute an important element of the National Housing Program adopted in 2016. 

Keywords: government program; social housing construction; investment and construction project; loan; preferences
Download article
DOI: 10.33226/0137-5490.2022.8.3
JEL: K15, K22, K34

The article concerns the issue of joint and several liability under tax law. Although the legislator uses a uniform term of joint and several liability, two distinct categories of joint and several liability should be distinguished, i.e. joint and several liability of tax obligations and joint and several liability of guarantee function. Joint and several liability of guarantee function applies in cases of liability for someone else's debt. The liability of the secondary liable person is ancillary to the principal obligation. Such a relationship does not exist in the case of joint and several liability of tax obligations. It should also be noted that in the case of joint and several liability of guarantee function, there is a clear gradation of tax obligations. The indicated structural features of joint and several liability of guarantee function directly affect the scope of necessary modifications when applying the provisions of the Civil Code on joint and several liabilities under tax law. The objective of the article is to highlight the differences between joint and several liability of tax obligations and joint and several liability of guarantee function and to define the theoretical and practical consequences of this division.

Keywords: tax liability; joint and several liability; tax ordinance
Download article
DOI: 10.33226/0137-5490.2022.8.4
JEL: K14, K42

This study concerns the penal measure of interdiction preventing the occupation of posts, practicing a profession or working for the institutions and governing bodies of the state and local government, as well as in commercial companies. It is a new institution, implemented into the Polish legal system by the amendment to the Criminal Code of 14 October 2021. The main research problem will be the attempt to answer the question about, the legitimacy of introducing it to the system of penal measures as well as the correctness of shaping the premises of its usage. The goal of this study will be to verify the research hypothesis that the legislator implemented into the criminal law system a penal measure, which is laden with numerous shortcomings making it impossible for it to perform its function. 

Keywords: penal measure of interdiction preventing the occupation of posts; practising a profession or working for the institutions and governing bodies of the state and local government; as well as in commercial companies; penal measure; amendment; Criminal Code
Download article
DOI: 10.33226/0137-5490.2022.8.5
JEL: K200

The aim of the article is to analyze current regulations governing the sale of alcohol in terms of the use of modern technologies — i.e. mail-order sale of alcoholic beverages via the Internet. The article presents the thesis that the current regulations, although strictly interpreted by public authorities, allow, in certain circumstances, the use of modern forms of selling alcoholic beverages, such as e-commerce. For this purpose, the wording of the provisions of the Act on Upbringing in Sobriety, other normative acts regulating trade (the Constitution, the Entrepreneurs' Law, the Code of Administrative Procedure, the Consumer Rights Act, the Civil Code), as well as the latest jurisprudence of administrative courts and other administrative bodies are analyzed. Furthermore, side issues are also discussed, such as the advertising of alcoholic beverages in the case of using the aforesaid retail forms. 

Keywords: mail-order sale of alcohol; freedom of economic activity; in dubio pro libertate; advertising of alcoholic beverages
Download article
DOI: 10.33226/0137-5490.2022.8.6
JEL: K13, K15, K39

The commentary concerns a judgment of 31.01.2019 in the case of Agostinho da Silva Martins (C-149/18), in which the CJEU ruled on the relation of the provisions contained in the Motor Insurance Directive 2009/103/EC of 16.09.2009 to EU conflict-of- laws rules contained in the Rome II Regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations. The judgment raised two problems relating to Article 28 of the Directive. This provision enables the Member States to adopt provisions that are more favourable to injured parties than the provisions needed to comply with the Directive. It has been examined whether the national legislation transposing the Directive providing, on the initiative of the national legislator, for more favourable limitation periods for actions seeking compensation for damage resulting from an accident can be regarded as mandatory provisions within the meaning of Rome II. The second issue raised was whether Article 28 of the Directive in question should be treated as a conflict of laws provision. The aim of the paper is to analyse the Court's decision. In the author's opinion these provisions cannot be regarded as mandatory ones, as this would mean that they should apply in every case, even if the applicable law would provide more favourable solutions than the provisions transposing the directive. Moreover, Article 28 of the Directive should not be considered a conflict-of-laws rule, as this would lead to the assumption that the provision in question would constitute a competence to establish one-sided conflict-of-laws rules that take precedence over the applicable law. 

Keywords: overriding mandatory provisions; motor insurance directives; law applicable to non-contractual obligations; private international law
Download article
Odbiór osobisty 0 €
Inpost Paczkomaty 4 €
Kurier Inpost 4 €
Kurier FedEX 4 €
Free delivery in Reader's Club from 47 €