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Dr Agata Ludera-Ruszel
ORCID: 0000-0003-4433-5884
Dr Agata Ludera-Ruszel, PhD — assistant profesor in the Department of Labour Law and Social Security at the University of Rzeszow and assistant of judge in the Appeal Court in Rzeszow. She has conducted a lectures from labour law in Spain (Cardenal Herrera-CEU University), Italy (Universita degli Studi di Genova), Belgium (Vives University College w Kortrijk) and Latvia (Banku Augstskola School of Business and Finance). DAAD fellow and a winner of scholarship of the Ministry of
DOI: 10.33226/0032-6186.2022.5.2
JEL: J62

Transformative changes in the world of work driven by globalisation and technological innovation pose enormous challenges for advancing the right to decent work. Decent work remains an "exclusive" and "luxurious" ideal for a growing number of workers. Young workers are especially vulnerable in this regard and are more likely to find themselves in a situation of precarity. This is due to the fact that they are experiencing twofold, inter-related, difficulties: the transition from education to work and the access to employment contracts that guarantee decent working conditions. This contribution analyses legal regulations addressed to young people and evaluates how this legislation impacts the position of young people in the labour market in Poland. The research will focus on solutions reaching out specifically to young people under the justifications of "education to work transition", "job creation" and "young unemployment" and include: apprenticeship, traineeship and internship. The study will examine how the regulation under analysis affects the access to decent work and other fundamental rights at work that are enshrined in both international instruments and the Polish Constitution and regulatory framework.

Keywords: young workers; employment; unemployment; decent work
DOI: 10.33226/0032-6186.2020.12.2
JEL: K31

Balancing work and family responsibilities is a prominent issue for modern society. The relation of subordination and dependence of a worker that characterizes the employment relationship, and makes it different from other work relations, puts an employee in a vulnerable position in terms of control over his or her own working life and balancing it with private life. Participation in paid activity often implies the need to sacrifice private life of the employee, which makes an exchange between the parties to an employment relationship no longer a fair one. Family life is most seriously exposed to a work-life conflict. This is becoming a critical challenge for many employees, especially women with family responsibilities. This contribution aims at offering an analysis of the recent European Union legislative intervention in the work-life conflict — the Work-Life Balance Directive and the position of Poland within this picture. The analysis reveals some limitations of the existing legislation as regards the conditions for people with caring responsibilities to reconcile their working and family duties.

Keywords: work-life balance; gender equality; parental leaves; working time flexibility

Dr Agata Ludera-Ruszel, PhD — assistant profesor in the Department of Labour Law and Social Security at the University of Rzeszow and assistant of judge in the Appeal Court in Rzeszow. She has conducted a lectures from labour law in Spain (Cardenal Herrera-CEU University), Italy (Universita degli Studi di Genova), Belgium (Vives University College w Kortrijk) and Latvia (Banku Augstskola School of Business and Finance). DAAD fellow and a winner of scholarship of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland for outstanding young scientiscs; reviewer of national and international scientific journals; author of several scientific publications in the area of labour law and the participant of national and international scientific conferences.